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Introduction
Classical management functions provide a useful way to classify managerial information, by defining what the role of a manager is, within an organization (Weiss, 2000, P.29). Henri Fayol in 1949 developed the majority of common management functions. These functions included planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Fayol argues that these management functions were general as they can be applied to managers from different organizations. Fayol states that the planning function involves setting organization objectives and deciding how best to achieve these set objectives. When planning, managers are required to be aware of the environmental conditions facing their organization, to be able to forecast future conditions and make quick and appropriate decisions (DuBrin, 2009, P.86). According to Fayol, organizing is a combination and synchronization of human, physical and financial resources within the organization. Managers are required to organize people and other resources, to fulfill the organization plan. Specifically, organizing involves the design and specification of jobs within the organization and allocating human resources, to ensure organization objectives are accomplished. Fayol believes that commanding is the process of inspiring subordinates to give a unified effort in order to achieve objectives. It involves guiding and influencing their behavior, and motivating their staff in the direction of accomplishing specific goals in given situations. This coordinating function, however, was seen as less effective management function in comparison to others (Kroon, 1995, P.78). Fayol though that managers should try and set a good example for the employees in their organization to emulate. This should be done by delegating tasks and communicating effectively. Lastly, controlling involves monitoring organization activities to ensure that performance does not deviate from set control standards. The controlling function can be...
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