Introductory Marketing

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INTRODUCTORY MARKETING
BIK 0012

FIRST SIT ASSIGNMENT
2009/10

VIKKI PADGETT

Word Count: 2,423
(excluding references)

Brief:
The concept of marketing has been around for a long time. Discuss how marketing has developed over time and the possible impact (if any), marketing may have on society. Use examples known to you, to support your answer.

When looking at the history of marketing, firstly the definition of marketing must be stated, otherwise different definitions of marketing would result in very different starting points in history for the development of the concept of marketing. ‘In the fast-moving world of business, definitions rarely stay the same. Marketing has been described as “The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.” (CIM, 2010). If this definition is used as the basis for this report, the history of marketing could be said to have started back in the times of the Ancient Greeks. “The roots of marketing thought are derived from the thinking of Greek philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, and Homer. Moreover, the Schoolmen of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries refined Aristotelian economic philosophy in a way that gave rise to a more modern view of the role of buying and selling, the meaning of money, and the role of merchants in fostering society’s well-being” (Tamilia, 2009).

Gras, in 1939, wrote:

“The history of marketing thought and practice is intertwined and interconnected with the rise of a merchant class and the growing importance of business and commerce during the middle ages” (Tamilia, 2009).

“In the nearer term, it is also possible to track marketing's direct economic origins back through to the 'Physiocrats' of the eighteenth century and the 'Austrian School of Economics' at the end of the nineteenth century (Broeckelmann 2004) and its mercantile origins to eighteenth-century English entrepreneurs such as Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795)” (Egan, 2008).

Industrialists such as Josiah Wedgwood understood the notion of target markets. Marketing during the industrial revolution was very much product oriented, producing products that may not have been produced previously, or alternative products to a high standard at a lower cost. Consumers bought what was produced as choice was limited. Prior to the 1930’s, marketing was not classed as a separate academic school of thought, it was generally thought of as being part of economics within business schools. However, in the 1920’s/1930’s American universities started teaching a marketing approach to business, aimed at fast moving consumer goods. “One undisputed fact about the birth of modern marketing and its formative years is that it was largely North America-dominated. Unlike its precursor economics, which was largely of European origin and was to retain its internationalism, modern marketing began, developed and flourished in the USA. Not that recognisable concepts did not exist internationally but it was in the USA that marketing was recognised early on as a subject worthy of academic endeavour. In America, this young discipline benefited from that country's powerful sense of individualism and entrepreneurship, its exuberance and fierce competition (Witowski 2005)” (Egan, 2008).

The American philosophy initially was that consumption drives marketing. Egan, (2008) states that “in the 1940s, an increasing number of different approaches were being considered. New emphasis was given to the management of marketing and more attention paid to the consumer viewpoint.”

“While US consumerism was buoyant Europeans were still suffering from shortages that would last into the 1950s. In the UK, for example, rationing did not end until July 3''' 1954. European marketing at this time was less directed at stimulating wants than restricting needs” (Egan, 2008). It wasn’t until the 1960’s...
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