This assignment examines and discusses Land, Air and Sea transportation modes, using Canadian examples such as the Trans-Canada Highway, VIA Rail Canada, Air Canada, Vancouver Airport and the Inside Passage to demonstrate the relevance and importance of the modes in regards to National, Regional and International networks and the supply and demand of these modes.
Transportation refers to the act of moving goods or individuals from one place to another. It is a key factor in many businesses and also plays an essential part in the tourism industry as well as for public use. Without transportation, travel and trade would not be possible. There are several different modes of transportation which can be categorised into three groups; Land, Air and Sea.
Canada is well known as the world’s second largest country and is bordered by sea on its East and West coasts. Canada borders the United States of America to the south and has the largest coastline in the world, spanning over 243,000 kilometres. (Transport Canada,(2)2012) Figure 1: Map of Canadian Provinces (Source: Toronto Merchant Services, 2012). 2.0Land Transportation
Land transport can be defined asany movement that takes place on the ground, e.g. Road and Rail transportation.
Road transportation is an important mode in any country especially one the size of Canada,with a population of over 33 million as recoded in the 2011 Census (Statistics Canada. (1) 2011), and road transport being one of the most efficient and affordable forms of transportation it is essential to the country’s infrastructure.
Rail Transport is a convenient means of travel for long distances; it is often a faster and more comfortable journey in comparison to Road Transportation.
In Canada two examples that are very important to Canada’s Land transportation are the Trans-Canada Highway and VIA Rail.
2.1Trans-Canada Highway (TCH)
The Trans-Canada Highway is one of the world’s longest national highways stretching from Victoria in British Columbia, through the ten provinces to St John’s in Newfoundland and Labrador. Officially opened in 1962 and taking 20 years to be fully completed in 1972, the Highway cost CAD$1 billion and was originally created to open up new regions, encouraging economic growth and make cross-country travelling easier. (CBC- Radio Canada, 2008) Canada’s highways are controlled and maintained provincially rather than nationally; each province is responsible for the portion of highway that spans through itsregion. The TCH, however is important to both national and regional networks as nationally it links Canada together as a country; providing an efficient means of infrastructure across relatively flat land.
It is used by many Canadians travelling across country (public use), for freight (commercial use) and also for travellers (tourism use) who are using the TCH as the basis of their holiday, crossing Canada from the Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans.
Regionally, within North America, it is very popular with tourists who like to cross between Canada and the United States meandering between the two countries to make their way to the opposite coast. There are 22 border crossings to choose from when passing from Canada into the United States. (DriveAway Holidays, 2011, Canada Section, p.77). This creates a very important regional network as these borders provide a ‘catchment’ opportunity to entice travellers and Americans to cross the border into Canada to experience another country without the requirement of air travel.
2.2VIA Rail Canada
Canada has an extensive and well run rail system. VIA rail operates trains coast to coast, within Manitoba and British Columbia, and also from Southern Ontario through Quebec and into New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. This connects several provinces together with fast trains providing a scenic land option that would otherwise take a significant amount of time by car.(VIA Rail, 2012)