Internalization and Globalization Theory

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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission (226388-CP-1-2005-1-DE-COMENIUS-C21). This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Module 3 (Theory)

Socrates Comenius 2.1

Module

Globalization and Internationalization

Authors: Murat Ali DULUPÇU and Onur DEMİREL, Isparta
E-Mail: dulupcu@iibf.sdu.edu.tr, onurdemirel@yahoo.com
CONTENT

1. Defining Globalization4
1.1. Understanding Globalization: Behind the Curtain5
1.1.1. Historical Background5
1.1.2. Stages6
1.1.3. Increasing Trade as a Vehicle7
1.1.4. Multinational Companies as a Transporter: Theories of MNCs and FDI8 1.1.4.1. Theories of MNCs8
1.1.4.1.1. Location Theory8
1.1.4.1.2. Internationalization Theory8
1.1.4.2. Theories of FDI9
1.1.4.2.1. Product Life Cycle Theory9
1.1.4.2.2. Internalization Theory10
1.1.4.2.3. OLI Paradigm (Eclectic Paradigm)10
1.1.4.2.4. Other Theories11
1.2. Multi Faces of Globalization12
1.2.1. Death of Distance12
1.2.2. End of the Nation State13
1.2.3. Hegemony of R&D13
1.2.4. Cultural Erosion14
1.2.5. Glocalization15
2. Impacts15
2.1. Visible Impacts15
2.1.1. Information Tachnologies and Technology Flows16
2.1.2. Labor Hyper-Mobility and Global Distribution of Labor17 2.2. Deep Impacts18
2.2.1. Economic Issues18
2.2.1.1. Income, Income Distribution and Poverty18
2.2.1.2. Capital, Finance, FDI and MNCs19
2.2.1.3. Production and Competitiveness21
2.2.1.4. Globalization of Knowledge22
2.2.2. Environmental Issues23
2.2.3. Social Issues24
3. The Debate25
3.1. Advocates of Globalization: Neo-Liberal View25
3.2. Opponents of Globalization: Anti-Globalist Movement26
4. Theories of International Trade 28
4.1. Smith and Ricardo: Classical View28
4.2. Neo-Classical Theories of Trade29
4.3. Alternatives30
4.4. New Trade Theories32
5. Regulating Globalization and Internationalization32
5.1. International Organizations33
5.1.1. International Monetary Fund - IMF33
5.1.2. World Bank - WB34
5.1.3. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development - OECD34 5.1.4. World Trade Organization – WTO35
5.1.5. United Nations – UN35
5.2. International Integrations35
5.2.1. European Union - EU36
5.2.2. Asia-Pacific Economic Co-Operation - APEC36
5.2.3. North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA36
5.2.4. European Free Trade Association - EFTA37
5.2.5. Others37
6. Future: Qua Vadis?38
ABBREVIATIONS

AFTA: ASEAN Free Trade Area
APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
CEFTA: Central European Free Trade Agreement
CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States
CSCE: Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe
CW: Corp Watch
EEA: European Economic Area
EFTA: European Free Trade Association
EU: European Union
FDI: Foreign Direct Investment
FE: Friends of the Earth
GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICT: Information and Communication Technologies
IDA: International Development Association
IFG: International Forum on Globalization
IMF: International Monetary Fund
MNC: Multi-National Company
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
OECD: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development OEEC: Organization for European Economic Co-Operation
OSCE: Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe
PGA: Peoples’ Global Action
R&D: Research and Development
TFP: Total Factor Productivity
UN: United Nations
USA: United States of America
USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
WB: World Bank
WEF: World Economic Forum
WSF: World Social Forum
WTO: World Trade Organization

GLOBALIZATION & INTERNATIONALIZATION...
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