Intelligence-Individual Differences

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Intelligence and its Development
Intelligence can be defined as the ability of an individual to think logically, understand different circumstances and solve them successfully by using the existing resources. Over the years, different psychologists have defined intelligence in several ways and also have come up with a number of methods to measure intelligence. The main purpose to measure intelligence was to aid those children who had lower intelligence in comparison to the other children of the same age group, by providing additional help, it would accelerate their development. This essay will mainly focus on the views projected by different psychologists about intelligence, the different methods of intelligence testing and the importance of emotional intelligence (EI). Nature and nurture both play a very crucial role which effects the development of intelligence in an individual. According to the early psychologists such as Spearman and Terman, every individual is born with a general level of intelligence, known as the intelligence quotient or IQ (Cottrell, 2003).This suggests that if an individual has high IQ or low IQ, they will possess that quality throughout their life without many changes occurring. Other psychologists such as Gardner believe that intelligence is a talent which develops in an individual through learning and hence the role of genes is very minimal. Raven’s Progressive Matrices was an intelligence test created by John Raven, which gave strong evidence that environment effects the intellectual performance of an individual (Cottrell, 2003). After further experiments, psychologists like Thurnstone, Gardner and Guilford came to a conclusion that there are multiple intelligences instead of a general intelligence. It is a known fact that every individual is different from one another in its natural endowments. Another philosopher, Raymond Cattell believed that intelligence constituted of crystallized intelligence, representing...