There has been a change in the identification of a person experiencing Mental Retardation to the term Intellectual Disability. There are several types of Cognitive Functions from mild to severe that coincide to people who have some form of Intellectual Disability that are viewed. The test of a person IQ is one of the main assessments that are used to diagnose a person experiencing an Intellectual Disability. People with Intellectual Disabilities experience Cognitive difficulties in: memory, reading, math, visual, speech, cognition, and meta-cognition. The research that was conducted from peer reviewed, full text, journal articles, from the (EBSCO) explores the identification change of terms and some causes of cognitive difficulties that associates with a person experiencing an Intellectual Disability. This paper was written to fulfill the course work required for SPED-510 Governors State University.
The hypothesis that people who experiences mental retardation normally have some type of mild to severe Cognitive Functions that are developed do to their mental or physical impairment. The authors states that the term mental retardation that is being used to classify this type of disability is changing into a new term Intellectual Disabilities. Because of the barriers and stigmas that was build around this term mental retardation, institutions, associations, and fields are adapting to the new term Intellectual Disabilities. By the new term being used, will the same diagnosis and definition still fit the criteria of the disability (Glidden, Greenspan, MacMillan, Siperstein & Leffeffert 2006; Schalock & Luckasson 2004; Switzky & Greenspan 2006b).
Glidden, Greenspan, MacMillan, Siperstein & Leffeffert 2006; Schalock & Luckasson 2004; Switzky & Greenspan 2006b, which they state “There is considerable and intense discussion in the field of intellectual disability/mental retardation about the construct of disability, how intellectual disability fits within the general construct of disability, and the use of the term intellectual disability” (116). “The term intellectual disability is being used instead of mental retardation. This transition in terminology is exemplified by organization names (e.g. the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities-AAIDD, International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities, President’s Committee for People With Intellectual Disabilities), journal titles, and published research (Parmenter, 2004); Schroder, Gertz, & Velazquez, 20002). A number of questions have emerged with the increased use of the term intellectual disability:” (Schalock, Luckasson, Shogren, Borthwick-Duffy, Bradley, Buntinx, Coulter, Ellis, Craig, Gomez, Thompson, Verdugo, Wehmeyer, Yeager 2007). The authors states how the transgression of terminology are changing with how the term are used from Mental Retardation to Intellectual Disabilities. They discuss why is the term changing and how the term is changing might change the views of how the “definition” is represented. They author focuses on some main points that show some of the reasons why this change is taking affect in major institutions, associations, and fields, and direct some questions towards the change of this terminology: •
Why is the term intellectual disability currently preferred to mental retardation? •
How might the use of the term intellectual disability impact the current definition of mental retardation? •
How might the use of the term intellectual disability affect persons diagnosed or eligible for a diagnosis of mental retardation? (Schalock, Luckasson, Shogren, Borthwick-Duffy, Bradley, Buntinx, Coulter, Ellis, Craig, Gomez, Thompson, Verdugo, Wehmeyer, Yeager 2007). The authors cite their purpose of this article to explain why the “shift” changes of the term intellectual disability. “At the heart of that shift is the understanding...
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