Instructional Method and Settings

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* Instructional Methods & Settings
* Selection of Instructional Methods
* Evaluation of Instructional Methods
* Increasing Effectiveness of Teaching
* Creating Techniques to Enhance the
* Effectiveness of Verbal Presentations
* General Principles for All Teachers

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OBJECTIVES

After completing this chapter, the reader will be
able to:
1. Define the term instructional method.
2. Explain the various types of instructional
methods.
3. Describe how to use each method effectively.
4. Identify the strengths and limitations of each
method.
5. Discuss the variables that influence the selection
of a method.
6. Recognize strategies to enhance teaching
effectiveness.
7. Explain how to evaluate the method(s) used.

SELECTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL
METHODS
The process of selecting an instructional
method requires a prior determination of the
behavioral objectives to be accomplished and
an assessment of the learners who will be
involved in achieving the objectives. Also,
consideration must be given to available
resources such as time, money, space, and
materials to support learning activities. The
teacher is also an important variable in the
selection and effectiveness of a method.
Teachers are at different levels on the novice
to-expert continuum, and how seasoned they
are influences their choices of instructional
methods. An expert skilled at facilitating small
group discussion may be a novice in the
design and selection of CAI. A nurse may be
an expert clinician but have only limited
experience and effectiveness in the teaching

role. Nurses are expected to teach but may
not have adequate time, inclination, energy,
or capability for developing the quality and
variety of instruction necessary. Teaching is a
skill that can be developed in formal
academic settings, in continuing
education programs, or through guidance
by an expert peer mentor.
Teachers are likely to focus on a particular
method because it is the one they feel most
comfortable using without considering all the
criteria for selection. There is no one right
method, because the best approach depends
on many variables, such as the audience, the
content to be taught, the setting in which

teaching–learning is to take place, and the
resources at your disposal. Nevertheless, the
ideal method for any given situation is the one
that best suits the learner’s needs, not your
own. If you are a novice, begin instruction
with very familiar content so that you can
focus on the teaching process itself and feel
more confident in trying out different
techniques and instructional materials. Ask
questions of learners and peers in the
evaluation process to ascertain whether the
method chosen was appropriate for
accomplishing the behavioral objectives
and meeting the needs of different learners in
terms of their learning styles and readiness to
learn. Narrow (1979) emphasized the
importance of periodically examining your
role as a teacher and assessing the factors of energy,
attitudes, knowledge, and skills, which influence
the priority you assign to teaching and
the ability to teach effectively. The following
is a summary of her suggestions.
At any given point in time, your energy
level will be influenced by both psychological
and physical factors, such as the amount of
satisfaction you derive from your work, the
demands and responsibilities of your professional
and personal life, and the state of your
health. Your feelings toward the learner also
influence the enthusiasm you bring to the
teaching–learning situation. If you feel drawn
to the learners because you find them interesting
or you are concerned or anxious about
their situation, then teaching will most...
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