Infection Control

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Causes and Spread of infection

Q 1.1 - Identify the differences between: bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

* Bacteria are unicellular, prokaryotic microorganism found almost in all kinds of habits. Some bacteria are beneficial like those involved in nitrogen fixation and some pathogenic, which cause diseases.

* Viruses are unicellular, tiny organisms which is mostly composed of DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) and protein. Its body compromises of head and tail sections. Viruses attach themselves to other organisms and cause severe infectious diseases.

* Fungi are a group of simple plants whose cells are devoid of chlorophyll. Fungus has chitis in its cell walls instead of cellulose. Fungi are popular for beneficial effects including food production, penicillin production and decomposition.

* Parasites are those micro-organisms which depend on other organisms (hosts) for their survival. Both virus and bacteria could be parasites.

Q 1.2 - Identify common illness and infections caused by: bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

* Common illness and infections caused by bacteria are:-

- Impetigo.
- Salmonella.
- Tuberculosis (TB).
- Cholera.
- Anthrax.
- Shigella.
- Pertussis (Whooping Cough).
- Bubonic Plague.
-Leprosy.

* Common illness and infections caused by viruses are:-

-Aids / HIV.
- Hepatitis.
- Polio.
- Cold.
- Chicken Pox.

* Common illness and infections caused by fungi are:-

- Thrush.
- Ringworm.
- Anthrax.
- Athlete’s Foot.

* Common illness and infections caused by parasites are:-

- Diarrhea.
- Pneumonia.
- Meningitis.

Q 1.3 - Describe what is meant by infection and colonization.

* The definition of Infection is: the growth of a parasitic organism (a parasitic organism is one that lives on or in another organism and draws its nourishment there from), within the body. A person with an infection has another organism (a germ) growing within, drawing its nourishment from the person.

The infection has some exceptions, for example the normal growth of the usual bacteria flora in the intestinal tract is not usually considered an infection. The same consideration applies to the bacteria that normally inhabits its mouth

* The definition of Colonization is: the presence of bacteria on the body surface, (for example: skin, mouth, intestines or airways) without causing disease to the person. An example of colonization is:

- MRSA.

Q 1.4 - Explain what is meant by systemic infection and localized infection.

* The definition of Systematic Infection is: an infection that in which the pathogen is distributed throughout the whole body rather than concentrated in one area, for example:
.
- Strep Throat.
- Chronic Fatigue syndrome.
- Diabetes Mellitus.
- Graves’ Disease (Thyroid disorder).
- Rheumatoid Arthritis.
- Sickle Cell Disease.

* The definition of Localized Infection is : an infectious or neoplastic process that originates in and is confined to a one organ system, or a general area of the body, for example:

- A sprained ankle.
- A boil on a hand.
- An abscess on a finger.

Q 1.5 - Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection.

* Poor practices that may lead to the spread of...
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