Causes and Spread of Infection

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ICO2: Causes and spread of infection
1.1 Bactetria are: Bacteria are organisms made up of just one cell. They are capable of multiplying by themselves, as they have the power to divide into different shapes. Their shapes vary, and that’s how they are used to separate them into groups. Usually a few micrometres in length. Bacteria are present in most surroundings on the planet, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals, providing outstanding examples of mutualism in the digestive tracts of humans, termites and cockroaches.

Viruses are: Viruses are too small to be seen by the naked eye. They can't multiply on their own, so they have to invade a host cell and take over its machinery in order to be able to make more virus particles.

Fungi are: Fungi are living organisms that are distantly related to plants, and more closely related to animals, but rather different from either of those groups. Fungi have similar physical characteristics to plants and are sometimes mistakenly put in the plant characteristics.

Parasites are: Parasites are living organisms that live and feed on an organism's or host's body. They jump from one host to the other damaging the body as they go along the most common carriers like mosquitoes and tick which are never harmed by these parasites. They may be transmitted from animals to humans, from humans to humans, or from humans to animals. Several parasites have emerged as significant causes of foodborne and waterborne disease. These organisms live and reproduce within the tissues and organs of infected human and animal hosts, and are often excreted in faeces.

1.2 Name some common illness caused by
bacteria:
* Salmonellosis,
* tuberculosis,
* MRSA,
* food poisoning, dysentery,
* bronchitis, 
* ear infections,
* strep throat/tonsillitis,
* gonorrhoea,
* syphilis,
* chlamydia
Viruses:
* Influenza,
* common cold,
* stomach flu,
* pneumonia,
* ear infections,
* HIV/AIDS,
* herpes,
* warts, dengue,
* West Nile Virus
Fungi:
* Valley fever,
* athlete's foot,
* ringworm,
* yeast infection
Parasites:
* Worms,
* malaria,
* sleeping sickness,

1.3 Infection means: It is the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in the body tissues, especially that causing local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response.

Colonisation means: it is the presence of bacteria on a body surface (e.g. skin, mouth, intestines or airway) without causing disease in the person. It is also the presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage. The colonies develop when a bacterial cell begins reproducing.

1.4 Systematic infection means: it is an infection in which the pathogen is distributed throughout the body rather than concentrated in one area. Example acute infection, airborne infection, arrested infection, chronic infection, cross infection, etc.

Localised infection means: it is an infection that is limited to a specific part of the body and has local symptoms. it is an infection involving bacteria that invades the body at a specific point and remain there, multiplying, until eliminated.

1.5 Poor practises that might lead to the spread of infection are: * not washing your hands,
* not wearing PPE,
* not storing or cooking foods properly,
* not cleaning your surroundings,
* not covering your nose or mouth when sneezing or coughing.

2.1 The conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms are (explain a little about each): * FOOD
Microorganisms need nutrients to grow on and are especially happy with proteins and carbohydrates.  These are where the potentially hazardous foods come in, such as meats,...
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