Low-carbon Technological Paradigm in Urbanization of China
Hao Dong,PhD Candidate ,
China Community Party School
With the development of the industrial civilization in the 20th century, human has the science and technology to create the great productive power and social fortune. So, science and technology have become the basic content and key lever for development of human civilization. The science and technology is also the power of urbanization. At the same time, due to the effects of the technological alienation, the environment pollution, the resource crisis, the breakdown of biologic variety have appeared and become more and more serious. Facing the severe environment problem gradually,the human begin to review the relationships between human,nature and society and want to find a good way by constructing the eco-civilization. The basement of the eco-civilization is the innovation of technology. The core of innovation of technology is the low-carbon technological paradigm. Starting from the combination of logic and history, this paper makes a deep analysis on the connotation and character of modern technological paradigm, discusses existing problems and dilemma of modern technology, analyses thoroughly and reveals deeply counter-ecology of modern technology and four kinds of drawbacks. This paper also make a further study on how the Chinese government deal with the challenge and opportunity of the low-carbon technology paradigm and the urbanization. Key words: low-carbon city; green development ecological civilization
1 The influence of urbanization
Technology is the most important power in the human history. Especially after the industry revolution, technology become the invisible hand of the urbanization. The percent of city people in the 1880 is 5.1% but it increase to the 48.7% in the 2005. More an more people choose to live in the city and the number of people who live in country is reducing. There are not only the happiness and heath in the city but also lots of problem. Urbanization in the People's Republic of China increased in speed following the initiation of the reform and open policy. By the end of 2010, the mainland of the people's Republic of China had a total urban population of 665.57 million or 49.68 percent of the total population. The rural-to-urban population fraction has continued to decline dramatically over the last two decades. In 2001, 64% of the population resided in rural areas, down from 74% in 1990. Meanwhile, the annual population growth rate was estimated at 0.59% (2006 estimate), and approximately 94% of the population occupies 46% of the land. Concurrent with the decreasing rural population and increasing urban population, China's industries and economic activity are moving to urban areas. In the long term, China faces increasing urbanization; according to predictions, nearly 70% of the population will live in urban areas by 2035. By 2025, China's urban population is expected to rise to 926 million from 572 million in 2005 and ot one billion people by 2030. Over the next two decades China will build 20,000 to 50,000 new skyscrapers and more than 170 cities will require mass transit systems by 2025. While China has coped more effectively than many countries with the demands of urbanization, a number of issues need to be tackled urgently. Jobs and infrastructure. Between now and 2025, it’s likely that another 200 to 250 million people will migrate to China’s cities, adding to an existing mobile population of about 155 million. Providing jobs and infrastructure for this anticipated inflow of people poses major challenges. Rapid economic growth will remain critical, with further deepening of the capital markets needed to help finance urbanization. Energy. Urban residents use 3.6 times as much energy as rural residents; suggesting that energy use is far from its peak. Also, energy intensity (consumption of energy per unit of...