Industrial Relation Terms

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The term ‘Industrial Relations’ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’. “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”. By “relations” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen.”―Industrial relations and personnel management are almost synonymous term with the only difference the former places emphasis on the aspect of employer relationship rather than on the executive policies and activities that are set up to foster good relations.‖ - E.F.L. Brec

1. Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC): One of the important points of the constitution of Indian National Trade Union Congress is that every affiliated union has to agree to submit to arbitration every individual dispute in which settlement is not reached thorough negotiations. There must be no strikes till other means of settlement are exhausted 2. Hind Mazdoor Sangha (HMS) : The socialists in the Congress disapproved not only the Communist run AITUC but also the Congress-sponsored INTUC, particularly because it advocated compulsory arbitration as a method of resolving industrial disputes. 3. United Trade Union Congress (UTUC): The dissidents from the Socialist Leaders’ Congerence held at Kolkatta in December, 1948 proceeded to establish yet another federation of trade unions in April-May 1949 under the name of United Trade Union Congress. .

Why do workers join trade unions?
Workers might join a trade union because
* They believe that there is strength in number and they will be listened to when they in a group. * To negotiate a better pay, more holidays and less hours of work. * To pressurise the employer to provide them with a healthier and safer working environment. * Improved benefits for retrenched workers

* To get the benefits of advice, financial support and welfare activities carried out by Trade Unions. * Many workers may also join a trade union because there is a closed shop policy. * . Larger Voice

* Workers' Rights
* campaign against injustices in the workplace,
* Trade Unions can help to change government policy

Trade union definition:
The Trade Union Act 1926 defines a trade union as a combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive condition on the conduct of any trade or business, and includes any federation of two or more trade unions. 

Causes of Poor Industrial Relations
Perhaps the main cause or source of poor industrial relations resulting in inefficiency and labour unrest is mental laziness on the part of both management and labour. Management is not sufficiently concerned to ascertain the causes of inefficiency and unrest following the laissez-faire policy, until it is faced with strikes and more serious unrest. Even with regard to methods of work, management does not bother to devise the best method but leaves it mainly to the subordinates to work it out for themselves. Contempt on the part of the employers towards the workers is another major cause. However, the following are briefly the causes of poor industrial relations: 1. Mental inertia on the part of management and labour;

2. An intolerant attitude of contempt of contempt towards the workers on the part of management. 3. Inadequate fixation of wage or wage structure;
4. Unhealthy working conditions;
5. Indiscipline;
6. Lack of human relations skill on the part of supervisors and other managers; 7. Desire on the part of the workers for higher bonus or DA and the corresponding desire of the employers to give as little as possible; 8. Inappropriate introduction of automation without providing the right climate; 9. Unduly heavy workloads;

10. Inadequate welfare...
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