Industrial Organization

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INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

BRIEF INTRODUCTION
 Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology is both the study of behavior in organizational and work settings and the application of the methods, facts, and principles of psychology to individuals and groups in organizational and work settings.  I/O psychologists are versatile behavioral scientists specializing in human behavior in the workplace. I/O psychologists recognize the interdependence of individuals, organizations, and society, and they recognize the impact of factors such as increasing government influences, growing consumer awareness, skill shortages, and the changing nature of the workforce.   I/O psychologists facilitate responses to issues and problems involving people at work by serving as advisors and catalysts for business, industry, labor, public, academic, community, and health organizations.

PAREMETERS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS
I/O have the following three parameters which it base;
1. Populations: 
The distinct focus of I/O psychology is on human behavior in work settings. Therefore, the populations affected by the practice of I/O psychology include individuals in and applicants to business, industry, labor, public (including non-profit), academic, community, and health organizations. 2. Problems: 

I/O psychologists deal with problems or issues that can be classified as both applied and basic in nature.  Basic problems are quite variable, following the investigator's interests. Examples include research on methods of behavioral measurement, communication, motivation, social interaction, and leadership. Applied problems and activities are oriented around scientific solutions to human problems at work.  These latter problems and activities include but are not limited to:

* Recruitment, Selection and Placement: Analyzing jobs and work, developing recruitment procedures, developing selection procedures, validating tests, optimizing placement of personnel, and identifying management potential

* Training and Development: Identifying training and development needs, formulating and implementing training programs, coaching employees, evaluating the effectiveness of training and development programs, and planning careers.

* Performance Measurement: Developing criteria, determining the economic utility of performance, and evaluating organizational effectiveness.

* Motivation and Reward Systems:  Developing, implementing, and evaluating motivation and reward programs such as goal setting programs or pay-for-performance plans.

* Organizational Development: Analyzing organizational structures and climates, maximizing the satisfaction and effectiveness of individuals and work groups, and facilitating organizational change.

* Quality of Work Life: Identifying factors associated with job attitudes, designing and implementing programs to reduce work stress and strain, developing programs that promote safe work behavior and the prevention of accidents, illnesses, and injuries, and designing programs that enhance work/family life.             

* Consumer Behavior: Assessing consumer preferences, evaluating customer satisfaction with products and services, and developing market segmentation strategies.

* The Structure of Work and Human Factors: Designing jobs and work, optimizing person-machine effectiveness, and developing systems technologies. 

3. Procedures and techniques:  
A variety of procedures, tools, techniques and guidance documents have been developed to assist I/O psychologists in effectively addressing the above types of issues and problems.  Notably, I/O psychologists have rigorously developed both standardized and more situationally-specific procedures and techniques for assessing the three primary elements in a work system the worker, the work itself, and the work context.  In regard to the assessment of worker characteristics, these procedures would include tests and other means...
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