Industrial and Organizational Psychology Paper
Industrial/ Organization (I/O) psychology is the scientific study of the structure of the work place which main goal is the improve productivity and efficiency along with improving the quality of life of people at work (Spector, 2008). The field of Industrial/Organization psychology’s main objectives did not always include the happiness of organizations employees but as a way to improve productivity by using psychology to discover individual differences through selection and training (Koppes, 2007). The roots of I/ O psychology are long and deep for it has existed for almost as long the field of psychology but has matured and expanded over the years. This paper will explore the evolution of the field of I/O psychology, while also explaining the difference from other disciplines, the role of research and statistics and how I/O is used in organizations. Evolution of Industrial/ Organizational Psychology
Industrial/Organizational psychology began with two experimental psychologist named Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott, who wanted to apply psychology and its principles to problems in the workplace. In the beginning I/O psychology focused on job performance and organization efficiency (Spector, 2008). Frederick Winslow Taylor later developed Scientific Management which included several principles to guide organizational practices such as selecting the correct person for the job; finding the best and most efficient way of doing task; training employees and using rewards for productivity and encouragement of high levels of performance (Spector, 2008). Frank and Lillian Gilbreth studied how people performed task through measurements and timing of people’s motions while performing task. The military also found use for the field of...
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