Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Topics: Logic, Scientific method, Deductive reasoning Pages: 4 (1060 words) Published: December 1, 2010
Reasoning is a method of coming to conclusions by the use of logical argument. There are three basic form of reasoning: inductive, deductive and the combination of both called inductive/deductive (Walliman & Baiche, 2001). Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning is one method of reasoning that researchers use. It is based on making a conclusion or generalization based on a limited number of observations. Thus, it produces from the specific to the general. All research that makes inference or generalizations about the results of a study uses inductive reasoning (Berg & Latin, 2008). According to American Psychological association (2009), “Inductive reasoning is the form of reasoning in which inferences and general principles are drawn from specific observations and cases. Inductive reasoning is the counter stone of scientific method in that it underlies the process of developing hypothesis from particular facts or observation” (p.246). The conclusions drawn from inductive reasoning are always probable rather than absolute and the degree of probability of any conclusion is the product of the degree of probability granted to each premise (Sprague, Stuart & Bodary, 2010).Occurrence of qualifying phrase like , ‘so it seems’, ‘it is likely that’ , ‘it is reasonable to conclude, or probably indicates the support lended to the conclusion , therefore it’s an inductive argument (Bell, Staines, & Michell, 2001) . Moreover, its logical form cannot be so neatly encapsulated in a three-line format (Walliman & Baiche, 2001). Examples

"When chimpanzees are exposed to rage, they tend to become violent. Humans are similar to chimpanzees, and therefore they tend to get violent when exposed to rage." "The woman in the neighboring apartment has a shrill voice. I can hear a shrill voice from outside, therefore the woman in the neighboring apartment is shouting." Also,

“If 40 vegetarians were studied and all were found to be...
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