Deductive Arguments: A deductive argument isn’t necessarily valid, it could be invalid. It also isn’t necessarily sound – it could be unsound. If the argument is valid and the premises are true then overall the argument is sound. You will always gain knowledge with a deductive argument. The first premise will link with the second premise in order to make a conclusion. Deductive arguments aren’t based on assumptions.
Inductive Arguments: The premises are all true so therefore the conclusion is likely to be true; however it isn’t definite that the conclusion will be true. It is usually probable that the conclusion will be true, but there is a chance it’s false. For example: Katherine is a girl (premise)
A lot of girls paint their nails (premise)
Katherine paints her nails (conclusion)
-Katherine might not like wearing nail varnish, it’s just an assumption that she does because she is a girl.
Necessary truths: Something that will always be true no matter what the circumstances or situation is. An example would be that ‘I am a female’. Contingent truths: A truth that in some cases may be true, however it could also have been false. If there is anyway in which this truth could be false, it is contingent. An example of this would be ‘Dogs have 4 legs’; some dogs have to have legs amputated, therefore isn’t true in every case. A Priori: Knowledge that has not been supported by an experience or an actual fact. A Posteriori: Knowledge that is backed up by experience/observation or an actual fact.