To what extent should there be limits on scientific research? 1. Topoi
A. Cause and Effect:
a. means/end: Is science means to what?
b. assumptions and antecedents: what does precede scientific research? c. Implications and Consequences: what will follow from ethically unhealthy scientific research?
a. Tension/opposition: what is the tension existing between ethics and scientific research? b. contradictions: What is the contradiction between preserving ethics and developing scientific research? c. paradox: What is paradox inherent in preserving ethics and developing scientific research?
a. evolutionary: What kinds of changes can evolve through science? b. revolutionary: are revolutionary changes involved with science? c. growth/decay: Is the scientific research growing nowadays?
a. ethical/moral: Is reckless scientific research ethically right? b. practical: does the scientific research have practical values? c. social: How do social opinions vary between ethics and science? d. political: what does the politics support between these two? e. spiritual/metaphysical: what is the spiritual value of science?
a. superficial vs. deep: what is the relationship between superficial appearance and deep significance in scientific research? b. form vs. function: Why people are constantly calling for more scientific development?
People should pursue scientific research until the point at which individual rights are not severely violated and objects—being animals or humans or whatever they might be—are not physically and mentally injured. The advancement of science, which is the pursuit of knowledge, is the primary value by itself.
a. If one wanted to attribute intrinsic value to animals, one should try to argue by analogy that...