Important Essays on History and the Evolution of the World

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Essay #1: Empires/Civilizations-“Golden Age”
 
Rome(
Republic: the new form of government the Romans made where the people chose officials. Senate: the most powerful governing body in the republic.
Patricians: upper class. (The senate was mostly made up of them) Plebeians: farmers, workers, artisans, and traders. Made up most of the population. Had little power (lower class.) [Later on in the empire, they gained more power and were allowed t elect their own officials and serve in government jobs.) Pax Romana: =”roman peace” the roman golden age that started with the rule of Augustus. He turned the republic in to an absolute monarchy. The Romans spread stability over a large part of the world. It lasted for 200 years. Laws of the twelve tables: the plebeians said that they wouldn’t know what the laws were unless they were written down. So they displayed laws on 12 tablets in the market place. Aqueducts: bridge-like stone structures that carried water from the hills to the cities.  

The Roman Empire started in 509 BC after driving out the Etruscans. In arts and architecture, they borrowed many Greek concepts in arts and architecture but instead of being simple their designs were “ornamented.” The empire had expanded a lot, which led to increased corruption, and a bigger gap between the rich and the poor. In law, they had a system of “innocent until proven guilty,” which is a system we use today. In engineering, they made aqueducts (see above). They also had good infrastructure and built many roads, bridges, and harbors. Trade: The Empire traded with Egypt for grain, Africa for ivory gold and lions, India for cotton and spices, and China for silk. They built roads that promoted trade and made the empire wealthy, as well as used the Mediterranean Sea, which was a “natural highway.” New coins were used to make trade easier. The Roman army was strong and therefore able to conquer a lot of land. They treated conquered people well and let them keep their own government and customs, yet had to serve in the army and pay taxes to Rome. The emperor Augustus (Octavius) stabilized the government. He instituted a system of a good civil service to make sure that government officials were both well trained and well educated. The empire started in Rome and spread throughout the Mediterranean, from Spain to parts of Asia Minor. It spread from modern France and in to parts of Britain. The fall of the Roman Empire: over expansion of the empire, high taxes, and foreign invasions all weakened the empire. Diocletian, the emperor, split Rome in to two (2) separate empires. The western empire fell, but the eastern empire survived, and became the Byzantine Empire.   |Military causes |Economic causes |Political causes |Social causes | |Visigoths and other Germanic |Heavy taxes were necessary to |Government becomes too strict |Population declines because of | |people invade the empire |support the government. | |disease and war | |Roman army lacks training and |Farmers leave land |People stop supporting the |People become selfish and lazy.| |discipline | |government | | |Romans forced to hire foreign |Middle class disappears |Many corrupt officials |  | |soldiers to defend their | | | | |borders | | | | |  |Romans use too much slave |Divided empire becomes weak. |  | | |labor. | | |...
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