Q.1 Trace the phases of evolution of human resource management.
Answer: Human resource management consists of all the activities undertaken by an enterprise to ensure the effective utilization of employees toward the attainment of individual, group, and organizational goals. It consists of practices that help the organization to deal effectively with its people during the various phases of the employment cycle, including pre-hire, staffing, and post-hire.
Human resource has a historical background since ancient times. But in the recent days it has been at its peak in approach and structured practices. There has been a vast change in the implementation compared to system followed at earlier days.
HRM practices can be classified into four broad phases as mention below:
• The Craft system
• The scientific system
• The human relations approach and
• The prevalent organizational science-human resource approach.
Craft System : Exist from the earliest times in Egypt and Babylon, training in craft skills was organized to maintain an adequate supply of craft workers. Later, by the 13th century craft training became popular in Western Europe and later developed to ensure to acquire the right skills and regulate the employment process. The craft system was best suited for domestic industries wherein it gave opportunity for the skilled workers to train and become experts in their particular field.
The Scientific Management approach: The HRM process further developed with the arrival of Industrial Revolution by the early of nineteenth or twentieth century which laid basis for a new and complex industrial society. Working conditions, social pattern and the division of labor were significantly altered. It was during this phase that employee welfare as a key HR practice emerged which addressed employee issues like recreational facilities, additional programs such as medical and employee grievance systems.
The Human Relations approach: This...
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