Dr. Nasim Ashraf
This paper explores the challenges posed in the area of human development in Pakistan. Pakistan has made little progress in key indicators of human development - education and health - due to years of neglect in policy making and implementation issues. Based on available data, it is highlighted that despite achieving a respectable growth rate, Pakistan has not been able to reduce poverty as other nations have (with similar or even lower levels of GDP per capita). Poor human development has also hampered economic growth. The paper brings out the principal challenges of human resource development in Pakistan, which are mainly the untrained, unskilled and uneducated workforce with low productivity perpetuated by rising population, which is unsuited to the demands of globalization and the ‘new’ economy. Finally, the paper discusses the integrated approach adopted by the government which is likely to improve the human resources and make poverty alleviation a reality in Pakistan. KEY WORDS: human resource; human development; poverty; Pakistan INTRODUCTION
Human resource is a combination of the education, training and motivation embodied in people. Human resource development is the primary factor that influences the direction and pace of socio-economic development in any country. The real wealth of a country is its human capital – its people. Without creating the critical mass of a qualitative human resource, a country cannot sustain a high growth rate. It is the quality of education that enables a country to make full use of its manpower for development. Human development is simply “a process of enlarging people’s choices[i]” and aims at creating an environment in which people can utilize their potential to the maximum and become more productive. Nexus between Human Development and Security
It is important to note that human security is directly linked with human development[ii]. Progress in one area enhances the chances of progress in the other. But failure in one area also heightens the risk of failure in the other. Marginalized or limited human development leads to a backlog of human deprivation – poverty, hunger, disease or persisting disparities between ethnic communities or between regions, leading to security issues in a given country.
Human development paradigm, as developed by the late Dr. Mahbubul Haq, an eminent Pakistani social scientist, is concerned not only with building human capabilities through investment in education and health, it is also concerned with using those capabilities fully through an enabling framework for growth and employment. The human development model regards economic growth as essential, but pays equal attention to its quality and distribution, its link to human lives and to its sustainability[iii].
According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), human development means to give people access to the resources essential for a decent standard of living and participating in communal life and particularly in making decisions that affect them[iv]. Human development is thus, about making individuals, as productive economic agents and empowering them.
It is measured by the Human Development Index (HDI) developed by UNDP. A score of 1 is perfect while lower scores reflect lesser level of human development. Human Development Index (HDI) is a measure of socio-economic progress, and includes: ➢ Longevity: as measured by life expectancy at birth ➢ Knowledge: measured by adult literacy (2/3) and combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrollment (1/3). ➢ Income: measured by current global average real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) dollars.
Current Situation of Human Development in Pakistan
Although, human resources are of great importance for a poor country like Pakistan,...