| Parental Investment
Process within natural selection where any characteristics/behaviours are selected to increase chance of reproductive success.Due to differences in parental investment, there are gender differences in reproductive behaviour such as gender specific mating strategies and preferences and so different characteristics have been selected.As females have large, few, limited eggs-careful to ensure reproduction is successful. Invest more time into offspring to can afford to be more choosy. Lead to Intersexual selection- preferences for males. Female preference determines area for which males compete. Prefer men displaying genetic fitness-strength-triangular back, broad shoulders reflects strength. High status and resources important. Less likely short-term mating strategies wasteful of resources. Long-term mating strategies-choose right mate to ensure reproductive success.Wayneforth-prefer masculine features-square jaw line, thin lips.Partridge- investigated intersexual selection. Female fruit flies, one group had partner selected random, other freel breed- own choice. Offspring measured- high competitive ability in offspring from own choice-intersexual selection increased reproductive success.Males-numerous, unlimited sperm-mate and little reproductive cost. Cannot be sure of paternity-maximise reproductive success-impregnate as many women as possible. Leads to intrasexual selection-compete for access to female, winner mates. Men evolved greater desire for sex and desire sex sooner than females. Short-term mating strategy-males lower standards and after sex their attraction decreases-evolutionary adaptation so don’t spend too long with one woman. In long-term mating strategies- males do not give resources freely. Preferences for females displaying fertility, such as hour glass figure and wide child-bearing hips-youth, beauty. Cunnigham-Baby face, small nose, big eyesSingh-0.7 waist-hip ratioBuss cross-cultural, surveys- females...
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