Human Impacts on Antarctica
| Management Strategies
| What Else can be Done?
| Oil, gas and mineral exploitation
| Today, mining is prohibited but it could be reopened for discussion in 2048. if mining becomes legal many oil exploration companies would be interested in Antarctica which could alter the ecological balance.
| Mining is banned under the Antarctic Treaty System, but this could be reopened for discussion in 2048.
| Simultaneous action at local, regional and global scales is needed if we are to halt the damage being done to the marine ecosystems of the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.
| The major negative effects of fisheries are: * potential for over-fishing of target species * effects on predator populations dependant on the target species as a food source * mortality of non-target species caught by fishing equipment * destruction of habitat
| The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) came into force in 1982, as part of the Antarctic Treaty System, with the aim of regulating exploitation rather than outright protection.
| CCAMLR should include not just the target species but also dependent and associated species and their ecological relationships. As a consequence, much research effort has been directed towards understanding the interactions between krill and their predators.
| Unregulated tourism
| With the exception of those involved in fisheries, most visitors to the Antarctic go either as tourists. In many aspects the type of activities undertaken and the environmental impacts are: potential disturbance to breeding birds and seal colonies, as well as being responsible for chemical and noise pollution, and littering; common to all visitors. Irrespective of their reason for being in Antarctica, people will visit sites with spectacular scenery and in particular will visit wildlife colonies. Accidental oil spills if boats become grounded or sink
| Simultaneous action...
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