An organization is a complex, competitive world. It is only loosely held together. In the study of organization, there is the difference between the micro and macro approaches. In the study of human behavior in organizations, the conceptual foundation seems to have received relatively little attention. The organizational behavior reflective of the inner sensitivity of society, as well as individual’s personal interests. While individuals are forced into a highly organized way of life, sometimes lack of unity in an organization could be a virtue. As a concept, human behavior in an organization is not new. There is, however, a problem in understanding it. Some people put emphasis on human behavior, while others on organization. Theories are important for the effective management of organization. Organization theory pertains to almost any kind of inter-personal relationship. Organizational behavior is the publicly observable activity of an organization. It is easier to measure than to define. Managing is a highly individual process. Management process is the actions and interactions within and between the components of an organizational system. While management is a means to an end, and not an end itself, to many managers, there’s only one way in doing things in the organization-the management way. Because the organization and management are complicated, many people are confused to see what is happening in the organization. Individuals are very unpredictable. Human behavior is essentially personal. Management is evolving technology and the organization is the vehicle of social change. There are several characteristics of organizational behavior. Understanding the elements of theories presents certain degree of difficulty. There are three critical elements of theories: (1) theories are understandable statements; (2) theories make predictions; and (3) theories deal with empirical events. The development of organization theory is the evolution of management thought. Theories must continue to be developed to resolve organizational problems of great magnitude and complexity. There are several criteria for a good theory. In the development of management theory, they must not overlook the human persons in the organization.
At present, there is no single theory of management that is universally accepted. A serious drawback to the development of management theory is the lack of adequate concept of formation. All things considered, an effective manager must know and understand the major management theories.
II.INDIVIDUALS AND GROUP BEHAVIOR
Individuals structure the organization to attain not only the organizational goals, but also their personal goals. Recently, things are very different in an organization. It shows that one’s personal desires can be better met within his work group. Also, every individual has a problem of personal identity. No individual is without a goal. He is a sensible human being. Group goals are the summation of the individual’s wishes, interests, and prejudices operating within the group’s resource constraints. A manager should accomplish the tasks set for his work group. Because of the uncertainties accompanying the group goals, some individuals become self-centered, demanding, and practical in performing their assigned tasks. Because a manager is basically optimistic about the group goals, he adapts to changing conditions in the organizations. While there may sometimes be conflicts of interest, there is a great number of shared goals in such undertaking. The organization is the central mechanism for reconciling the values of the individuals and the organization. Certainly, individual’s hopes and dreams can be fulfilled in the attainment of group goals not only by integrating individual’s goals with the group goals, but also by identifying the goals of both the individual and the organization in the future. A manager directly influences the behavior of his subordinates in...