How Archaea Is Similar to Eukaryotes and How They Differ from Bacteria

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Contents Page No. Task 01
1.1How Archaea is similar to Eukaryotes and how they differ from Bacteria………..02 1.2: Importance of co-ordination between sub cellular organelles in Eukaryotic cell, using protein synthesis and transportation within cells…….…………………04

1.3 Explain the role of different types of transporters in cell membrane……………....07

Task 02
2.1 Explain how in each stage of Interphase, mitosis and controlling agents involved to contribute to the formation of identical cells………………….12 2.2 The importance of apoptosis pathway in liver cells………………………………..15

Reference………………………………………………………………………………...17

Task 01

1.1 How Archaea is similar to Eukaryotes and how they differ from Bacteria.

Once classified as bacteria in the domain prokaryotes that is until the analysis of archaea DNA showed that they are very much different from bacteria (Waggoner & Speer, 1994, para.1-2). Archaea are now known to have a different evolutionary history and may even be the closest living relatives to the first organisms on earth (Noel, n.d, para.3). Archaea are extremophiles meaning that they can exist under some of the harshest and most extreme conditions ranging from rift vents in deep sea with temperature over 100 degrees centigrade to extremely acidic or alkaline lakes to digestive track of animals (Waggoner & Speer, 1994, para.4). There are three main divisions of archaea the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Koracrchaeota.

Figure 1.1.1 Types of Archaea Species Retrieved from http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Life/archaea.html Archaea may not have same physical similarities to eukaryotes but their metabolic pathways and genes are. Archaea’s similarities to eukaryotes can be seen in the metabolic pathway like the transcription and translation process. Protein synthesis in both begins with amino acid methionine as well as both their DNA’s are associated with histones and they both have similar promoter regions. Apart from this they both lack cell walls made from peptidoglycan as well as have similar ATPase (type V) enzymes for the breakdown of ATP. Other similarities include their DNA repair and replication mechanisms being similar as well as their ribosomes are not sensitive to chloramphenicol and Streptomycin (Rodrigo, 2012). Apart from having similar shape and size, bacteria and archaea differ in many ways. While bacteria contain cell wall made of peptidoglycan archaea contain cell wall made up of pseudo-murein. Archaea cell membranes have lipids bonded by ether bonds instead of ester bonds in bacteria cell membrane. Archaea have genetic differences to bacteria such as archaea contain more complex RNA polymerase containing 8 different proteins while bacteria contain 5 different proteins (Paustian, 2009, para. 1). The ribosome’s shape differs in both archaea and bacteria. The main difference would be that they both have different metabolic pathways such as glucose not being broken down using glycolysis pathway or that many archaea does not contain a functional kerb’s cycle pathway (Colorado Education, n.d.). Overall archaea have some similarities and differences between eukaryotes and bacteria they show a completely different set of evolution compared to both. While archaea have similar shape to bacteria they are more similar to eukaryotes.

1.2: Importance of co-ordination between subcellular organelles in Eukaryotic cell, using protein synthesis and transportation within cells.

Proteins are one of the most important molecules in cells, having a variety of functions ranging from cellular support to cellular locomotion. Proteins are constructed from at least one set of 20 amino acids. Synthesis of proteins in the cell involves two steps, Transcription and Translation (Regina, n.d. para.1). The organelles involved in protein synthesis are nucleus, ribosomes, rough...
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