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Alexa Molinelli
BIO 110-14
Exam 5 Homework
Chapter # 14
1. What are the five kingdoms and give a brief description of each kingdom? -Monera- single celled prokaryotes; bacteria. Protista- Mostly single celled eukaryotes. Fungi- Multicellular eukaryotes that feed by extracellular digestion and absorption. Plantae- Multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs; producers. Animalia- Diverse multicellular heterotrophs. 2. Who developed the binomial system of nomenclature (genus and species)? -Binomial System of Nomenclature devised by Carl Von Linne.

3. List the levels of classification beginning with kingdom and ending with species. -Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
Chapter # 15 and # 16
1. How are prokaryotic cells characterized? Explain each in detail. -No membrane-bound nucleus, Single chromosome (circular DNA), cell wall in most species, prokaryotic fission, metabolic diversity. 2. What structures are found in prokaryotic cells?

-Structures found in prokaryotic cells are cytoplasm, plasma membrane, ribosomes, cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, glycocalyx, flagellum, and pili. 3. Give examples of bacteria classified as Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. -Archaebacteria: Methanogens (methane makers), Extreme halophiles (salt lovers), and Extreme thermophiles (heat lovers). Eubacteria: Deer ticks, typical rash, Spirochete that causes Lyme disease. Eubacteria includes most familiar bacteria. 4. What method do prokaryotic cells use to reproduce and what is the end result? -Prokaryotic Fission is a mechanism for cell replication. It results in two genetically identical daughter cells. 5. What is a plasmid?

-A Plasmid is a self-replicating circle of DNA that has a few genes and can be passed from one cell to another. 6. What two components compose a virus?
-Consists of protein wrapped around a nucleic acid core. Genetic material is DNA or RNA and the Coat is protein. 7. Why is a virus nonliving?
-A virus is nonliving because it is a non-cellular infections agent. 8. What are the steps of viral replication?
-Virus recognizes and attaches to host cell. Whole virus or genetic material (DNA or RNA) enters host cytoplasm. Viral DNA or RNA directs host to make viral genetic material and protein. Viral nucleic acids and proteins are assembled into new virus particles. New viral particles are released from cell. 9. Describe the lytic and lysogenic pathways.

-Lytic Pathway- virus quickly infects cell and causes cell to rupture (lysis), spilling its contents and the virus. Lysogenic Pathway- viral genes remain inactive inside host cell, genes become integrated in host DNA, remain inactive until something triggers them to begin destructive cycle, latent period extends the cycle, and viral DNA becomes part of host chromosome for a time. 10. What are viroid’s and prions?

-Viroid’s are smaller than viruses, strands of circles of RNA, no protein-coding genes, no protein coat, and cause many plant diseases. Prions are small abnormal proteins, linked to human diseases (Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), and animal diseases (scrapie in sheep and Bovin spongiform encephalopathy which is mad cow disease). 11. What are the general characteristics of the kingdom Protista? -Simplest Eukaryotes and Mostly single celled but few multicellular. 12. List examples of the parasitic and predatory molds.

-Phylum Chytridiomycota (Chytrids) - 575 species in marine and fresh water, most are decomposers, some parasites, some species have chitin in cell walls, as do fungi. -Phylum Oomycota (Water molds) - 580 species, most are aquatic saprobes, some are parasites, plant pathogens, downy mildew, late blight of potatoes, and most produce an extensive mycelium. -Phylum Acrasiomycota (Cellular Slime Mold) - Amoeboid cells aggregate to form migrating mass, fruiting body. -Phylum Myxomycota (Plasmoidal Slime Molds) - Cell walls break down during aggregation, Plasmoidum migrates, then differentiates to form spore=bearing structures. 13....
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