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History.
the renaissance.
-rebirth;period of west european's history where there was a great philosophical and artistic movement. -14th to 17th century
before the renaissance
-decline in middle ages
-focuses were mainly on rural and agricultural
-writings mostly concerned with the Church
-feudalism to national monarchies
-man became interested with the affairs of the world; they began to drift from the Church; they started to question life; -crusades
origin of italian renaisance
the renaissance started in italy because of several reasons; some of which are: -the crusades-this allowed the europeans to be exposed to greek and roman writing which were preserved by the muslims -trading- italy was the centre of the mediterrainean trade; this brought about great wealth to the country; the medici family was incharge of trade; they were very wealthy, this wealth was used to sponsor artists,painters,writers etc. -italians were more attached to their classical roman heritage -six major cities of italy in which the renaissance flourished -genoa -venice -florence -milan -naples -rome

HUMANISM
-the study of classical writings (greeks and romans) ; it is the philosophy that people are rational beings -men of the renaissance period began to break away from the church; we say this because they had began to criticize the authority of the church as well as they were quite interested in life itself ; these men were known as humanists, they had believed that life was more than living for the church but that man was intelligent beings and full of worth

ITALIAN HUMANISTS
Dante Alighieri
-From Florence
-Thinker and Writer of late13th-early14th century
-Pioneer of Renaissance ; Father of the Italian language
-Diplomat; Political Observer;Great Poet;
-Expressed words in the native Tuscan Tongue
-Wrote "The Divine Comedy"

Francesco Petrarch
-poet;studied law; member of the clergy;"founder of humanism" -master of lyric poetry
-interested in archeology and collecting coins and medals
-criticized the medieval educational method

Northern Humanists
Desiderius Erasmus
-Holland
-fought falsehood
-studied publication of classical literature
-book: Praise of Folly
where he made fun of the clergy;wrote against indulgences,fasting on fridays and during lent; and the some of the Church's interpretation of the bible

Thomas More
-book: utopia =criticized the society of his day
-English Humanist

Francois Rabelais
- Frenchman
-Two great loves: classical learning, people of France
-Loved his native french speech
-Book: The Intestimable Life of the Great Gargantua,Father of Pantagruel -Ridiculed fakery and falsehood; had the highest regard for honesty

Printing Press - Johann Gutenberg
-this sped up the reproduction of books
-helped in the setting up of libraries
-popularised the ideas and information of the renaissance
-spread from Germany to western countries and became very famous in Italy Aldus Manutius - famous italian printer of Venice
-resolved that he would publish all the Greek and Latin classics which he wanted to sell at a price the average person could afford. He did this by printing books of small sizes and inexpensive paper. -Aldine type- known today as Italics

-Painting and Architecture
-Renaissance architects drew inspiration from studying the old Greek and Roman designs -Central feature of a renaissance building - dome placed on a drum -Round arches and long rows of greek columns were much used.

Michelangelo-native of florence.
-architect,painter,sculptor
-Dome of St.Peter's was finished according to his designs
-Fresco painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel -Vatican -Italian artsits were skilled in the art of painting portraits and less successful at landscapes -they were commissioned to decorate churches with paintings based on themes taken from the Bible as well of lives of the saints.

OLD MASTERS OF ITALIAN PAINTING : Michelangelo; Leonardo Da Vinci, Correggio,...
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