History Os Sociology

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History of sociology
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Theory and History|
Positivism · Antipositivism
Functionalism · Conflict theory
Middle-range · Mathematical
Critical theory · Socialization
Structure and agency|
Research methods|
Quantitative · Qualitative
Computational · Ethnographic|
Topics and Subfields|
Cities · Class · Crime · Culture
Deviance · Demography · Education
Economy · Environment · Family
Gender · Health · Industry · Internet
Knowledge · Law · Medicine
Politics · Mobility · Race & ethnicity
Rationalization · Religion · Science
Secularization · Social networks
Social psychology · Stratification  Categories and lists [show]Journals · Sociologists Article index · Outline|
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Sociology emerged from enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge. Social analysis in a broader sense, however, has origins in the common stock of philosophy and necessarily pre-dates the field. Modern academic sociology arose as a reaction to modernity, capitalism, urbanization, rationalization, and secularization, bearing a particularly strong interest in the emergence of the modern nation state; its constituent institutions, its units of socialization, and its means of surveillance. An emphasis on the concept of modernity, rather than the Enlightenment, often distinguishes sociological discourse from that of classical political philosophy.[1] Within a relatively brief period of time the discipline greatly expanded and diverged, both topically and methodologically, particularly as a result of myriad reactions against empiricism. Historical debates are broadly marked by theoretical disputes over the primacy of either structure or agency. Contemporary social theory has tended toward the attempt to reconcile these dilemmas. Whilst postmodernist trends in recent years have seen a rise in highly abstracted theory, new quantitative data collection methods have also emerged, and remain common tools for governments, businesses and organizations. Social research sprang from sociology, but has since gained a degree of autonomy as practitioners from other disciplines share its purpose. Similarly, "social science" has come to be appropriated as an umbrella term to refer to various disciplines which study society or human culture. Contents[hide] * 1 Precursors * 1.1 Ancient times * 2 Origins * 2.1 Comte, Spencer and Marx * 2.2 Other precursors * 3 Foundation of the academic discipline * 3.1 The canon: Durkheim, Marx, Weber * 4 19th Century: From positivism to antipositivism * 5 20th Century: Critical theory, postmodernism, and positivist revival * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links| [edit] Precursors

[edit] Ancient times
Sociological reasoning may be traced back at least as far as the ancient Greeks (cf. Xenophanes′ remark: "If horses would adore gods, these gods would resemble horses"). Proto- sociological observations are to be found in the founding texts of Western philosophy (Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, Polybius and so on), as well as in the non-European thought of figures such as Confucius.[2] The characteristic trends in the sociological thinking of the ancient Greeks can be traced back to the social environment. Because there was rarely any extensive or highly centralized political organization within states this allowed the tribal spirit of localism and provincialism to have free play. This tribal spirit of localism and provincialism pervaded most of the Greek thinking upon social phenomena.[3] The origin of the survey can be traced back to the Doomesday Book ordered by king William I in 1086.[4][5] There is evidence of early Muslim sociology from the 14th century. Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), in his...
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