History of Technology

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 35
  • Published : January 20, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
S Spuzic and C Madden “Logics of Manufacture”

CHAPTER 2 History of Manufacture The co-authors in this section: C Stevens and J O’Brien 2.1. Before the Industrial revolution  Preamble  The beginnings (distant past down to 5 millennia before present)  The urban societies (~5000 years ago to ~2500 years ago)  Greece and Rome (~2500 years ago to ~1500 years ago)  Medieval period (~1500 to ~ 500 years ago)  Impact of western civilisations (~500 to ~250 years ago) Preamble The contemporary state of production systems is the result of a long path of development over thousands of years. Evidence of the systematic fabrication of structural components – stone blocks and bricks – can be found throughout the world. The Egyptian Pyramids and the 8000 km long Great Wall of China built millennia ago are impressive landmarks along this path, as are the intriguingly similar pyramids in Peru (Huaca Del Sol) and in China (Great White Pyramid). Many further examples allow us to trace the evolution of mankind over thousands of years: the production of weaponry, ceramics and glassware, for example, give an insight into the tools, techniques and cultures needed to produce them.

The pyramid of Khafre (Chephren) is the second of the three pyramids, located at Giza Egypt [56]

The actual beginning of manufacturing could be related to group-organised hunting in prehistoric times. Anthropology indicates that such activities were taking place hundreds of millennia ago. Hunting expeditions also imply that, however primitive, the manufacture of weapons and tools was already taking place. 1

S Spuzic and C Madden “Logics of Manufacture”

The following Table provides a very simplified overview of the introduction of typical manufacturing processes, tools and materials [2-37, 493, 497, 665, 670]: MILESTONES IN DEVELOPING EQUIPMENT, ENERGY PROCESSED MATERIALS, TECHNIQUES

TIME PERIOD

Casting
Clay/stone mould, wheel, fire

Solid Shaping Stone hammer, manual force, potters wheel Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, earthenware

Joining

Material Removal

Stone hammer

Flint, axe, wedge Wood, stone, Au, Ag, garnet Cutting, abrasion, polishing Iron saws, files

Egypt, Greece, Rome, China

6,000 Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, alloys to earthenware, porcelain 2,000 years ago Direct casting, lost wax

Au, Ag, Cu, Fe alloys

Bending, forging

Riveting, glueing, forge welding

Furnaces, sand moulds, water wheel

Tools for ironmaking, screw press, carpentry

Roman, Middle Ages

2,000 to 1,000 years ago

Cast iron, Zn, brass, cast steel, glass, cement

Protein glues

Stamping of coins, glass blowing and pressing, metal drawing

Forge welding of iron and steel, glazing, diffusion bonding

Sheet cutting into bands, wood turning, filing
Sandpaper, windmilldriven saw Etching of armour

Permanent mould Middle 1,000 Ages & to Renaissance 250

Rolling mill, dies

years ago

Slip casting of ceramics

Mg, Al, Ni, Fe alloys Plate rolling, lead extrusion, deep drawing

2

S Spuzic and C Madden “Logics of Manufacture”

Coal fuel 250 to 150

Steam engine Rubber

Cams, flywheel, lathe Soldering, brazing Boring, milling

years ago Bessemer process,
Industrial Revolution 150 to 100

centrifugal casting Petroleum & gas fuel

Tube rolling, hot extrusion

Mechanisation. electric energy/motor Grinding wheel glass, special alloys Die casting

years ago Bakelite, borosilicate
Continuous Oxyacetylene rolling welding Nuclear energy automation, data acquisition systems Chemical machining Universal rolling mill, CNC, CAD High speed steel, cemented carbides Roughness measurement, NC machining, laser cutting Tool coating

Rapid development 100 of sciences to 50

years ago

SiC, Al2O3 WC, high speed steel, polymers, composites Continuous casting, Rapid solidification, monocrystal growing Superconduction

W-wire, polymers

Composites

Powder Arc welding, metallurgy, rail electrical rolling, isostatic resistance pressing...
tracking img