The word ceramic is derived from the word (keramikos). "Ceramics" means articles and objects made of clay with definite/permanent shape and fired at high temperatures. Clay is the only one and the unique material which when moistened with a suitable quantity of water, develops "PLASTICITY" which helps in manufacturing unlimited number of objects in various shapes and sizes.
CERAMICS BEFORE CHRIST
Ceramics is one of the most ancient industries on the planet. Once humans discovered that clay could be dug up and formed into objects by first mixing with water and then firing, the industry was born. As early as 24,000 BC, animal and human figurines were made from clay and other materials, and then fired in kilns partially dug into the ground. The Greeks developed the initial stages of ceramics and the Egyptians discovered various contributory stones and soils thousands of years ago. They developed new techniques and added new colors to the ceramics. The manufacture of ceramic wares was carried out in Spain during the time of the Muslims and the Hispano & Morison golden pottery became famous all over the world during the 14th century. Almost 10,000 years later, as settled communities were established, tiles were manufactured in Mesopotamia and India. The first use of functional pottery vessels for storing water and food is thought to be around 9,000 or 10,000 BC. Clay bricks were also made around the same time. CERAMICS IN THE SUB-CONTINENT
In sub-continent, Ceramics were such as pottery and tiles with motifs besides being decorative and functional also depict our cultural heritage. For centuries ceramics as a form of craft, was passed on from generation to the other in our country, just stopping short of becoming a fully fledged industry. Blue pottery of Multan, for example, is dated back to the emergence of Muslim civilization in these regions. Motifs and figures from old historical forts, tombs, gardens and other buildings provide a tender touch of Muslim culture.
CERAMICS INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN
HISTORY OF CERAMICS INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN
* At the time of creation of Pakistan in 1947, there was no ceramic industry at all. * There were certain pockets where the concentration of such units formed a cluster. * The government of Pakistan provided technical and financial assistance through Ceramic Service Center at Gujrat and pottery Development Center at Shahdra near Lahore. * The pottery industry developed into ceramic industry and better manufacturing techniques were introduced. * Thus in late fifties some big ceramics units like Dada Bhoy China Krachi, Pakpore Ceramics Lalamusa (Gujrat) were established to produce high temperature porcelain tableware of good quality using imported machinery. * In late sixties refractory manufacturing units were established, namely General Ceramics and Marshall Ceramics at Gujranwala, and General Refractory at Karachi. * In seventies, the production of sanitary wares was started in an organized manner and big units like International Ceramics, Karam Ceramics, Frontier Ceramics, Swat Ceramics, and Trust Ceramics etc. were established and started their production to their capacities. * In mid seventies, a few organized units for the production of ceramic wall and floor tiles were established on European imported technology. The more prominent units among them were Karam Ceramics, Shabir Ceramics, Swat Ceramics, Emco Ceramics etc. were established. CERAMICS INDUSTRY AT PRESENT
The Ceramics industry at present is producing three major types of products i.e. * Earthenware
* Stone ware and
The Earthen ware industry whose total production capacity is about 75,000 tons per year mainly located in Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Chakwal, Lala Musa and around Lahore. Gujrat and Gujranwala have long historical links with this industry and the people of the area feel pride in having traditions of excellence in this field. Earthen wares in...