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National Pollutant Inventory

Emission estimation technique manual

Combustion in boilers
Version 3.6
December 2011

ISBN: 978-0-642-55386-7

© Commonwealth of Australia 2011

This manual may be reproduced in whole or part for study or training purposes subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgment of the source. It may be reproduced in whole or part by those involved in estimating the emissions of substances for the purpose of National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) reporting. The manual may be updated at any time. Reproduction for other purposes requires the written permission of the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities: GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT 2601,

e-mail: npi@environment.gov.au,
web: www.npi.gov.au,
phone: 1800 657 945.

The manual was prepared in conjunction with Australian states and territories according to the National Environment Protection (National Pollutant Inventory) Measure.

While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the contents of this manual are factually correct, the Australian Government does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this manual. Emission Estimation Techniques

Combustion in Boilers

Table of Contents


2Process description2

2.1Fuel types2
2.2Expected emissions2
2.3General boiler types3
2.3.1Combustion of solid fuels3
2.3.2Combustion of liquid fuels4
2.3.3Combustion of gaseous fuels5
2.4Emission controls5

3Emission sources6

3.1Emissions to air6
3.1.1Fugitive emissions6
3.1.2Point source emissions6
3.1.3Emissions to water6
3.1.4Emissions to land6

4Threshold calculations7

5Techniques for estimating emissions8

5.1.1Emission factors9
5.2Direct measurement10
5.2.1Sampling data10
5.2.2Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) data12 5.3Engineering calculations14
5.3.1Fuel analysis14
5.4Approved alternative technique15
5.5Calculating emissions15
5.5.1Emission factors for boiler fuel15

6Transfers of NPI substances in waste18

7Next steps for reporting18


9Appendix A: Definitions and abbreviations20

10Appendix B: Emission factor tables21

Appendix C: Erratum to the Combustion in boilers EET manual50

Version 3.3 - July 201050
Version 3.2 - February 201050
Version 3.1 - (March 2008)50

List of Figures, Tables, Equations and Examples


Figure 1: Process for combustion in boilers2


Table 1: Category 2a and 2b substances7
Table 2: Calculating how much fuel is burnt7
Table 3: Example - Stack sample test results11
Table 4: Example - CEMS output12
Table 5: Emission factors for bagasse boilers (uncontrolled)22 Table 6: Emission factors for bagasse boilers (dry scrubber)22 Table 7: Emission factors for bagasse boilers (wet scrubber)23 Table 8: Emission factors for brown coal briquettes (uncontrolled)24 Table 9: Emission factors for brown coal briquettes (baghouse)24 Table 10: Emission factors for black coal (cyclone furnace)26 Table 11: Emission factors for black coal (fluidised bed)27 Table 12: Emission factors for black coal (overfeed stoker)28 Table 13: Emission factors for black coal (Pulverised coal, dry bottom)29 Table 14: Emission factors for black coal (Pulverised coal, wet bottom)30 Table 15: Emission factors for black coal (spreader stoker)32 Table 16: Emission factors for black coal (underfeed stoker)33 Table 17: Emission factors for blast furnace gas34

Table 18: Emission factors for coke oven gas34
Table 19: Emission factors for...
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