Accg399 Case Study

Topics: Greenhouse gas, Emissions trading, Kyoto Protocol Pages: 5 (1600 words) Published: May 10, 2013
Activity 1
Scope 1 emissions include emissions that released from a facility as a direct result of the activities of the facility, such as fuel combustion, fugitive emissions from fuel, industrial processes emissions, and waste emissions (NGER Technical Guidelines 2011).

The NGER Technical Guidelines provide 4 methods for reporters to select for the estimation of emissions. Method 1, which is called the National Greenhouse Accounts default method, specifies the use of designed factors in the estimation of emissions. This method is usually used by reporters to calculate emissions resulting from the combustion of homogenous or similar fuel across most facilities. Method 2 is a facility-specific method that uses industry sampling and Australian or international standards listed in the Determination or equivalent for analysis of fuels and raw materials. It can provide more accurate estimates of emissions at facility level. It is likely to be useful for fuels with several variability in key qualities. Method 3 is also a facility-specific method which uses Australian or international standards for both sampling and analysis of fuels and raw materials. The similarity of method 2 and 3 is that the application of Australian and international documentary standards provide a benchmark for procedures for analysis. However, method 3 requires reporters additionally to comply with documentary standards for sampling, as well as documentary standards for analysis of fuels. Method 4 is about the direct monitoring of emission system either on a continuous or periodic basis. It can provide a higher level of accuracy in certain circumstances depending on the emissions process.

The first method is most appropriate for Contex because of its quick and easy maneuverability. Homogenous fuel must be used for the transport fleet. The data on consumption of particular fuel for transport would be multiplied by a specific emission factor, so that Contex can get a visual emissions estimate.

Activity 2
According to NGER Technical Guidelines, Scope 2 emissions are a form of indirect emission and are activities that generate electricity, heating, cooling or steam that is consumed by the facility but that do not from part of the facility. Scope 2 emissions from electricity are purchased from the main electricity grid by an electricity transmission network or distribution network. Scope 2—indirect energy|

GHG Source| Quantities used| Calculation| Emissions tones CO2-e| Purchased electricity—NSW| 2,000,000kWh| 2000000*(0.89/1000)| 1780| Purchased electricity—Victoria| 1,000,000kWh| 1000000*(1.21/1000)| 1210| Purchased electricity—Queensland | 250,000kWh| 250000*(0.88/1000)| 220|

Activity 3
Scope 3 emissions consist of two main indirect emissions. The first of these is the indirect emissions attributable to the extraction production and transport of fossil fuels. Another one is the indirect emissions from the extraction, production and transport attributable to the electricity lost in delivery in T&D network (NGAF, 2011). According to Table 3 (The fuel combustion emission factors for liquid fuels and certain petroleum based products for stationary energy purposes) and Table 4 (The fuel combustion emission factors for fuels used for transport energy purposes), the EC and EF for diesel oil are 38.6 and 69.2 separately. The emission factors for electricity purchased can be found in Table 39 (Scope 3 emission factors for consumption of purchased electricity by end users). The latest estimate would be used for calculations. The latest estimate for NSW is 0.17 kg CO2-e/kWh, Victoria is 0.15, and Queensland is 0.12. Scope 3—indirect other|

GHG source| Quantities used| Calculation| Emissions tones CO2-e| Own transport fleet indirect fuel extraction | 400,000 litres | (400kL*38.6*69.2)/1000| 1068| Purchased electricity (indirect fuel extraction and line loss)—NSW | 2,000,000 kWh| 2000000*0.17/1000| 340|...
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