In 1916, Henri Fayol published his "14 Principles of Management" in the book "Administration Industrielle et Generale." Fayol also created a list of the six primary functions of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles. Fayol's "14 Principles" was one of the earliest theories of management to be created, and remains one of the most comprehensive.
14 Management Principles developed by Henri Fayol are :
1. Division of work : Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. 2. Authority : The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility. 3. Discipline: Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership, a clear understanding between management and workers regarding the organization's rules, and the judicious use of penalties for infractions of the rules. 4. Unity of command: Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. like from top to bottom in an organization. 5. Unity of direction : Each group of organizational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan. 6. Subornation of individual interest to the general interest : The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. 7. Remuneration: Payment is an important motivator although by analyzing a number of possibilities, Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system. 8. Centralization (or...
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