Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BScIT) – Semester 1 BT0092 – Software Project Management – 4 Credits (Book ID:) Assignment Set – 1 (60 Marks)
Answer all questions 10 x 6 = 60
1. Explain the IT and its organizational structures in detail? Ans:
Traditional organizations are hierarchical, flat or matrix in design. (Fig. 1.1)
• In hierarchical organizations, middle managers tell subordinates what to do and tell superiors the outcomes. IS supports this hierarchy.
• In flat structured organizations, work is more flexible and employee do whatever is needed. It allows offloading extra work and supports intra-firm communications.
• In matrix organizations, work is organized into small work groups and integrated regionally and nationally/globally. It reduces operating complexes and expenses by allowing information to be easily shared among different managerial functions.
Fig. 1.1: Types of Organizational Structures
1.4.1 Hierarchical Organizational Structure
The key features of Hierarchical Organization Structure are given below: • It is based on the concepts of division of labor, specialization, and unity of command.
• Key decisions are made at the top and filter down through the organization.
• Middle managers do the primary information processing and communication function.
• It is typically used to store and communicate information along the lines of the hierarchy and to support the info management function of the managers.
1.4.2 Flat Organizational Structure
Following are the key features of Flat Organizational Structure:
• Decision-making is centralized.
• As everyone does whatever needs to be done, they can respond quickly to dynamic, uncertain environments
• However, this organizational structure often becomes less flexible as the organization grows.
• Routine work is often off-loaded but, as a hierarchy develops, becomes the „glue‟ tying parts of the organization that would not otherwise communicate.
1.4.3 Matrix Organizational Structure
The features of Matrix Organization Structure are listed below:
• This typically assigns workers with two or more supervisors in an effort to make sure multiple dimensions of the business are integrated, with each supervisor directing a different aspect of the employee‟s work.
• Matrix organizations often fail to enable managers to achieve their business strategies because of the inability to cope with increased information processing demands.
1.4.4 Networked Organizational Structure
Following are the advantages of Networked Organizational Structure:
• Rigid hierarchies are replaced by formal and informal communication networks that connect all parts of the company.
• Defined by their ability to promote creativity and flexibility while maintaining operational process control, which is achieved by substituting hierarchical controls with controls based on IS
• Extensive use of communication technologies and networks also makes it easier to coordinate across functional boundaries. The networked organization structure is shown in the Fig.1.2. [pic]
Fig. 1.2: Networked Organizational Structure
1.4.5 T-form Organization
Features of T-form Organization are as follows:
• T-form (“Technology-based”) organizations take the networked structure one step further by combining IT with traditional components to form new types of components.
• These include electronic linking, production automation, electronic workflows, electronic customer/supplier relationships and self-service Internet portals
• Work is often coordinated electronically, while systems enable information to more easily move around the organization, and decentralizing decision-making
2. Explain different roles of the software development?
The following are the roles based on the Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF).
• Middle-Management Leadership
Manage people, resources, and budgets. Oversee and provide vision...