Hazrdous Waste

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HAZARDOUS WASTE

Signs/Symbols

Toxic Waste

Biohazard Warning

Outline
Definition  Sources  Disposal/Control


Outline
Definition  Sources  Disposal/Control


What Is Hazardous Waste?
Hazardous substance  Quantity  Concentration  Characteristics (physical, chemical, infectious) increase in mortality  Increase in irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness  Pose substantial present or potential hazard to human health and the environment 

What Is Hazardous Waste?
a name given to material that, when intended for disposal, meets one of two criteria: Criteria Pollutants (over 50,000 identified)  Characteristics 

Hazardous Substances
      




Lead Arsenic Mercury, Metallic Vinyl Chloride Benzene Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s) Cadmium Benzo(a)pyrene Chloroform

      




DDT, P’P’Aroclor 1260 Trichloroethylene Aroclor 1254 Chromium (+6) Chlordane Dibenz [a, h] anthacene Hexachlorobutadiene Dieldrin

Characteristics
Flammability  Reactivity  Corrosivity  Toxicity


Flammable
Liquid with flash points below 600C  Easily ignited; burn vigorously and persistently 

Corrosive
Aqueous solution  Have pH values outside the range 2.0 to 12.5  Any liquid that exhibits corrosivity to steel at a rate greater than 6.35 mm per year. 

Reactive
Unstable  Can form toxic fumes or can explode


Toxic
Bioconcentration  LD50 (less than 50 mg/kg body weight)  LC50 (less than 2 mg/kg)  Phytotoxicity 



Radioactive

Outline
Definition  Sources  Disposal/Control


Sources



 

Industrial Wastes Agricultural Wastes Household Wastes Medical Wastes

BHOPAL, India Accident

Timeline
At the plant  21:00 Workers begin water cleaning pipes.  22:00 Water enters tank 610, reaction starts.  22:30 Gases are emitted from the vent gas scrubber tower.  00:30 The large siren sounds and is turned off  00:50 The siren is heard within the plant area. The workers escape

Timeline
Outside  22:30 First sensations due to the gases are felt—suffocation, cough, burning eyes and vomiting.  1:00 Police are alerted. Residents of the area evacuate. Union Carbide director denies any leak.

2:00 The first people reached Hamidia Hospital. Symptoms include visual impairment and blindness, respiratory difficulties, frothing at the mouth, and vomiting.  2:10 The alarm is heard outside the plant.  4:00 The gases are brought under control.  7:00 A police loudspeaker broadcasts: "Everything is normal” 

BHOPAL, India Accident
Poisonous gas escaped from a chemical plant and killed 3,000 people, according to official estimates. Other estimates put the number at between 8,000 and 10,000. Around 50,000 suffered permanent disabilities, and more died later.

There was no contingency plan for evacuation in the event of an emergency. Poor sales had led the company to cut costs, scale back production and lay off around a third of the workforce. Safety systems had also been cut. A worker cleaning out pipes with water sparked the disaster. He did not use a basic but vital piece of equipment to isolate sections of pipe.

MIC is one of the most toxic and lethal substances known to humans. Safe storage requires it to be kept cool and isolated from water, which can trigger a violent runaway reaction creating heat and a deadly gas.

Water got into the tank where the MIC was stored, raising the temperature to over 200 degrees Celsius (392F), creating the lethal gas. Several safety systems failed or were not working.

Outline
Definition  Sources  Disposal/Control


DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES


Hazardous substances need to be disposed of appropriately in order to reduce the risk to people and the environment. The best way to dispose of hazardous substances is to isolate them from other waste and send them for recycling or disposal at special facilities.



Secure Landfill

Control


Land...
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