Hardware and Software

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Types of Computer

* Analog Computers
-most extinct today
-can perform several mathematical operations simultaneously
-uses continuous variables for mathematical operation
-utilizes mechanical or electrical energy

* Hybrid Computers
-combination of digital and analog computers
-digital segments perform process control by conversion of analog signals to digital ones

* Mainframe Computers
-have the capacities to host multiple operating systems and operate as a number of virtual machines and can thus substitute for several small servers

* Microcomputer
-computer with a microprocessor and its central processing unit -can be called as personal computers

* Desktops
-intended to be used on a single location
-widely popular for daily use in workplaces and households
* Laptops
-miniaturized and optimized for mobile use.
-its portability and capacity to operate on battery power have served as a boon for mobile users * Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
-handheld computer
-palmtop
* Minicomputers
-smaller than mainframe computers, bigger than microcomputer -mid-range system or workstation
* Supercomputers
-highly calculations-intensive task
-large transaction processing power
* Wearable Computers
-record-setting step in the evolution of computers
-consistently in operation as they do not have to be turned on and off -constantly interacting with the user

Elements of the Computer System
* Hardware Devices
* Software System
-Operating System
-Middleware
-Application

Part of the Computer
A computer is made up of four essential parts:
* System unit
* Monitor
* Keyboard
* Mouse

The system unit is the main part of the computer. It houses all the components that make the computer run.

System unit is composed of:

-Central Processing Unit (CPU)
* “microprocessor”
* brain of the computer
* performs all the operations that computer does
-Random Access Memory
* “memory”
* temporarily stores your computers activities until they are transferred and stored permanently in your hard disk when you shut down or restart. * ‘the more memory your computer has the faster it will respond. -Hard disk drive

* where data and programs are stored permanently
-Motherboard
* where all the other devices in your computer are connected -Chipset
* bridge chips, logic chips, glued chips
* contains controllers for the memory , PCI bus, peripheral cards -Cache RAM
* hardest chips found in the motherboard
-RAM chips
* surface mount- chip is soldered right onto the board
* socket – chip is soldered into the board and a chip is inserted in a socket * RAM sockets usually perpendicular to the motherboard on smaller circuit boards called sticks -Slot
* ISA(Industry Standard Architecture) slot is the most common slot * black
* PCI(Peripheral Component Interconnect) slot is popular and widespread standard * White
* Express is a computer expansion card standard designed to replace PCI * Used in consumer, server and industrial application as a motherboard level interconnect and as expansion card interface for add in boards * Key difference between buses is a topology based on point to point serial links rather than parallel bus architecture * AGP(Accelerated Graphics Port) is a single, light brown slot * Provides a high speed dedicated connection for video

* Provide a faster and larger bandwidth
* It allow a the video card to use system memory

All About PROCESSORS
What Processor should I get?
With today's processor technology, a laptop’s performance is more dependent on GPU [Graphics] than CPU.

Mobile processors from the time of the earliest Core Duo are more than sufficient to meet most needs but performance is often hampered by graphic capability. Example: a. Core2 Duo + Intel X3100

b. Pentium Dual Core + Intel X4500
c. AMD TurionX2 + ATI HD3200

Based on...
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