...Half-Life of M&Ms
Introduction
Half-life is the time required for something to fall to half its initial value. The half-life of a radioactive element is the time it takes for half of its atoms to decay into something else. M&Ms were chosen because they all have the same m mark on the on one side. In this lab you will go through predicting and counting the number of remaining "mark-side up" candies that should help understand that rates of decay of unstable nuclei and how it can be measured; that the exact time that a certain nucleus will decay cannot be predicted; and that it takes a very large number of nuclei to find the rate of decay.
Purpose
To stimulate the transformation of a radioactive isotope with M&Ms over time and to graph the data and relate it to radioactive decay and half-lives.
Materials and Safety
Materials
* 200 pieces of M&Ms (trademark only)
* Shoe Box
* Pen/Pencil
* Paper Towel
Safety- No safety precautions needed
Procedure
1. Count out 200 M&Ms. Place all 200 candies in the shoe box with the letter facing up
2. Cover the box and shake it vigorously for 3 sec. This is 1 time interval.
3. Remove the lid and take out any atoms (candies) that have “decayed”, that is, that are now showing lettered sides down. Record on the data table the numbers of decayed and remaining...

...July 8, 2013
The HalfLife of a Radioisotope
By Jeremiah Stoddard
Abstract:
The half-life of a radioisotope is the time required for half the atoms in a given sample to undergo radioactive, or nuclear, decay. Half-life is given the symbol t1/2.Different radioisotopes have different half-lives. The amount of radioactive isotope remaining can be calculated using the equation,
ln [ (A)0 / (A) t1/2 ] = kt1/2 , or, rearranged: ln 2 = kt1/2. A sample data set was provided due to safety concerns. Using the data set, a half-life of 14.46 days was calculated using graphical linear regression analysis.
Introduction:
Unstable isotopes of certain elements spontaneously disintegrate. Their nuclei discharge particles or energy. Observing the decay stages using an appropriate instrument allows the researcher to determine the radioactive decay rate. The decay rate can be calculated using the formula: ln [ (A)0 / (A) t1/2 ] = kt.
The half-life of the isotope was considered to be the time at which the activity has dropped to ½ its original value and was given the symbol, t1/2. Calculation of the half-life was determined with the equation ln [ (A)0 / (A) t1/2 ] = kt1/2 , or, rearranged: ln 2 = kt1/2.
Materials:
This lab was performed under theoretical conditions, as the...

...
The Half-Life of a Radioisotope:
10-22-14
Abstract: The half-life of a radioisotope is the time required for half the atoms in a given sample to undergo radioactive, or nuclear decay. The amount of radioactive isotope remaining can be calculated using the equation, t1/2 = .693/K. A sample data set was provided due to safety concerns. Using the data set, a half-life of 14.27days -1
was calculated using graphical linear regression analysis.
Introduction:
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the half-life of an unknown radioisotope. Half-life is defined as the time it takes for one half of the atoms in in a radioactive sample to decay. Data will be collected on the activity of a radioactive isotope vs. elapsed time, the half-life will then be determined by two different types of graphical analysis.
Methods/Procedure:
Using the provided data in Table 1, the time in days, the normalized activity of the unknown (A’), and the natural log of the normalized activity of the unknown (ln A’) were calculated to determine beta emission half-life, and the half-life of the radioisotope. This data was then plotted on a graph to determine the half-life.
The calculation for A’ was A’unk = At...

...HalfLife Experiment
My hypothesis would be that after each shaking
about half of the remaining candies would be logo-up
and half of them logo-down. That's why the shaking
represents a "half-life".
half-life || total time (sec) || # of undecayed atoms || # of decayed atoms
0 0 100 0
1 5 65 35
2 10 51 28
3 15 23 14
4 20 11 12
5 25 8 3
6 30 5 3
According to my data no my hypothesis was not correct because the number of candies removed after each shaking
cannot be the same. It will always be approximately
half of what it was on the previous shaking, because
the starting number for each shaking will be only about
half of what it was the previous time.
HalfLife is the time taken for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to fall to half its original value.
When does a radioactive sample emit the largest number of...

...Title
To determine the half-life of beer foam
Purpose
In this experiment, we will make the bear foam as much as possible by pouring fast and using warm beer and try to estimate the half-life of beer foam based on the changing of height while the foam is collapsing.
Theory
A quantity is said to be subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its value. Symbolically, this process can be expressed by the following differential equation, where N is the quantity and λ (lambda) is a positive number called the decay constant.
Figure 1
Figure 1
Exponential laws are common to many physical phenomena. Examples are the amplitude of an oscillator subject to linear friction, the discharge of a capacitor, cooling processes, or radioactive systems. In this experiment, we will make the beer foam as much as possible by pouring fast and using warm beer. The bubbles burst randomly so rather like the decay of radioactive nuclei, the rate of decay of beer bubbles is proportional to the number of bubbles as follows:
dNdt=-λN
In order to solve this differential equation, we could apply the following formula:
N=N0e-λt
Where
No is the original number of bubbles
N is the number of bubbles at time t
λ is the decay constant
Design
* Variables
* Independent variables are time, measured in seconds after the beer is pouring into the graduated cylinder.
* Dependent variable is the height of beer...

...liewe Dagboek
Vandag was die ergste dag ooit, want ons verloor ons wedstryd teen Chelsea. En ek was die rede dat my span verloor. As ek net probeer het om 'n bietjie harder. Dit is hoe dit afgegaan het, was dit in die laaste paar minute van die wedstryd, en ek hardloop na die doel post dit was 'n een op een, net vir my en die doelwagter, daar was geen manier wat ek kon mis. Ek het aangehou hardloop na die bewaarder en ek huiwer om te skiet en die bewaarder het die bal van my en my span verloor die spel.
Woorde: 101
According to certain people, violent video games should be banned; they feel that violent video games are the source of today’s violence amongst children. I strongly disagree with them. Video games, like movies, music and any other form of art, are there to entertain people and to enjoy, not restrict. What most people fail to realize is that the video game industry, like the film industry, is heavily regulated with a strict code of parental guidelines already in place. Even the game consoles to play these violent games have parental controls. What I fail to understand is that some parents believe its okay to give their children 18+ rated games even though they are well under that age, and say that these games are the sources of violence between children. If parents would not let a 10-year-old watch 18+ rated horrors movies, then why would parents let a 10-year-old play Gears of War, or Grand Theft Auto with its gang, crime and sexual content?
Today, the...

...that change the way we buy games forever. Today Valve software is known for innovation and quality but there would have never been portal, Team Fortress 2, left 4 dead, Counter-Strike or Steam if there hadn’t first been Half-Life. Valve software was founded by long time Microsoft employee Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington in 1996. Newell was a Harvard drop out that had spent 13 years with the company, producing the first three versions of windows. Over the years he and Harrington had become so called Microsoft milliners and inspired by Michael Abrash who left Microsoft to work on quake with id software, who left to found valve software 1996. Abrash himself would leave id software to join valve in 2011 but no before helping them to secure a license to the quake engine that would be the backbone of their first game a syfy first person shooter set in an secret resource and development lab, Harrington would act as programing leader on the project, his only for valve, and the game would be named after the time required for half of a sample to undergo radioactive decay. Valve Software or Valve Corporation as they known now is a game developer. The next two years Valve released games like Team Fortress a simple team death match game and an expansion pack for Half-Life. In 2000 they struck gold yet again with Counter-Strike like Team Fortress Counter-Strike was a multiplayer online first person shooter however...

...Abstract:
Finding the half-life of Aluminum-28 is the purpose of this lab. The class met at the Radiation Center and exposed small amounts of aluminum to energetic neutrons and watched the samples decay. After creating a table with background count and gross counts of the aluminum remaining at fifteen different one-minute intervals, this allowed the net counts per minute at each interval to be found as well. Next a graph of the net cpm verses time was plotted. After each interval was plotted the K-value (slope) was found along with the half-life. The actual half-life of Aluminum is 2.25 minutes. The half-life found in our group was 2.23 minutes.
Procedure:
The procedure is as follows on pages 63-67 of the Chemistry Laboratory Manual. No changes were made to this procedure.
Data:
Background in 30 minutes = 553
Counts per minute (cpm) = 18.45
Time Gross Counts Time Gross cpm Bk cpm Net cpm
1 2203 .2 min 11015 18.45 10996.5
2 1662 .2 min 8310 18.45 8291.5
3 1288 .2 min 6440 18.45 6421.5
4 946 .2 min 4730 18.45 4711.5
5 734 .2 min 3670 18.45 3651.5
6 540 .2 min 2700 18.45 2681.5
7 425 .2 min 2125 18.45 2106.5
8 325 .2 min 1625 18.45 1606.5
9 238 .2 min 1190 18.45 1171.5
10 183 .2 min 915 18.45 896.5
11 132 .2 min 660 18.45 641.5
12 78 .2 min 390 18.45 371.5
13 75 .2 min 375 18.45 356.5
14 64 .2 min 320 18.45 301.5
15 43 .2 min 215...