der Empire ComparisonThe Ottoman Empire and Mughal Empire both being “Gunpowder Empires” faced similar issues. Both empires faced inadequate transportation and communication systems, both faced poor bureaucracies, and competing with rival empires. The first problem was inadequate transportation and communication systems. Although they had the necessary military technology to control their empires, transporting it to where it was needed was another issue. The larger they grew, the more difficult it was for the infrastructure to be adequate for the task. Secondly poor bureaucracies and unruly warrior elites caused difficulties in both empires. The military leaders knew their importance to the state, and they often operated quite independently of the government. Even in the Ottoman Empire, where the bureaucracy was stronger, the sultan eventually lost control of the Janissaries, who rebelled against him when their constant demands went unfulfilled. The rise of European rivals caused yet another struggle. Ultimately, the Europeans benefited more from the gunpowder revolution than the Muslim Empires. European countries were smaller, both in population and land space, and so mobilization of their human and natural resources was easier. They were also in such strong competition with one another that the Europeans were spurred on to try new technologies and reforms. Both of these gunpowder empires were indeed strong and influential, but as with every other powerful empire, complications caused setbacks
The Qing and Russian Empires both had problems in government and military that were solved by mimicking European styles and strategies. Russia was a vast, cold empire with almost no organization, no navy, a limited army, very few decent roads, and few warm water ports. The tsar Peter the Great hoped to strengthen his country by westernizing it. In Moscow, Peter was intrigued with their maritime talk and with the sea-faring instruments they showed him. As a young man he...
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