Groundwater

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Abu Dhabi is the capital of the United Arab Emirates (figure 1) that occupied most of the UAE land of 67,340 km2 (Brook, M.C. et al, 2005). Its climate is arid, low annual rainfall rate of about 100mm/year, high evaporation rate, no reliable surface water resources such as rivers and low groundwater recharge rate. The main source of ground water found in Abu Dhabi is from high elevated Oman Mountains that provide the water to the wades.

According to (Brook, M.C. et al, 2005), total of less than 4% of water used is from groundwater recharge of Abu Dhabi in other word, the annual water use in Abu Dhabi is 26 times larger than the annually renewable natural water resources. The rapid economic development and the high increase in population increase the dependable on the unconventional water resource like desalination and conventional water supply measures, such as recharge wells, recharge and storage dams, water transfer, and reuse of waste water over the traditional Falaj system (Brook, M.C. et al, 2005). Water consumption

In 2003, the total amount of water consumed in Abu Dhabi emirates was equal to 3381.7mm3 divided into two regions eastern and western regions of 1495 mm3 and 1886.7mm3 respectively (table 1).

Even that most of the extracted groundwater is brackish and saline; it is still the main source of water in the emirates as it provides Abu Dhabi by 80% of all water used. As stated in (Brook, M.C. et al, 2005), Agriculture and forestry count for 75% of total water consumption and the remaining counted for domestic, amenity and industrial use. Ground water is the major source of water (79% of the total water sources) and it used for forestry and agriculture purposes, Desalination( 17%) used for domestic (majority), forestry and agriculture purposes , and Effluent(4%) used mainly for amenity (figure 2).

Ground water quality
The groundwater quality influenced generally by the surrounding rocks, the residence time of...
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