Group: Group W
Module Title: Skill for Study 2
Assessment Title: Report
Assignment Title: Write a recommendation report in which you compare three possible methods for water provision in arid region of your choice. Tutor Name: Eve Smith
Student ID Number : 200860469
Date of Submission: Friday 2nd Dec, 2011
Word count: 1668
3.2Rain Harvesting System3
In some developing country，arid are able to cause poverty and death, so it is important to provide clean, cheap and sustainable water to those residents living in arid area. However to supply water in arid regions can be a great challenge, it should concern about cost, sustainability, environmental impact and social impact. This report will focus on 3 methods of water prevision: Desalination, Rain Harvesting System and Dam. The report aims to analyses 3 different water prevision methods, and find out which is fit the situation in Middle East. In order to achieve this aim, report will compare those 3 methods in 4 requirements: Cost, Sustainability, Environmental Impact and Social Impact and carry out a recommendation to the region of Middle East. Background
Recently the total population of human being has broken through Seven billion. The booming population has led to a serious problem, the higher the population is, and the more water will be demanded. However, the water resource is limited: though 70.9% of the earth surface is covered by water, only 2.5% of the earth’s water can be directly utilized by human beings (Cech 2010). Fresh water resource is valuable for every one on this planet, especially for those people who live in arid areas such as Middle East. In those regions, without water provision crops and livestock cannot survive, people have to spend a lot of time on searching and carrying water which can deprive their right to get education and make money (KIC 2011). At the same time， low water quality is a huge threat to people’s health. According to a survey from WHO (2004) if all humans in the world can have clean water supply, 88% of health problem in developing country will be solved. Options
97% of water on this planate is salt water, if we can take the salt out water, then many place in the world will no longer suffer from lack of water. Fortunately desalination make it possible. Fischetti (2007) points out that desalination is a process using energy and technique to remove salts and other minerals from water. The aim of this process is to transform salt water to fresh water for people drinking and daily use in the regions limited on fresh water but have plenty of salt water. Numbers of desalination station have been built in the world, The biggest desalination station in the world is the Jebel Ali Desalination Plant located in United Arab Emirates. It can produce 79.2 billion Gallon fresh water per year (Elshorbagy 2008). These stations supply large amount of fresh water to local residents every day, ease the water stress largely. 1.2 Rain Harvesting System
In some arid areas，rainwater may be the main water source，Boers (1994) point out that, the low rainfall and irregular distribution cause the problem of water stress in some arid areas. Rain Harvesting System basically is to harvesting rain water from rooftop and yard，after purified，than storing the water in an underground cellar for drinking, daily use and watering crops, See: figure 1 (Garwalmail 2001). Boers (1994) also points out that this kind of technique has already been applied on many arid areas to solve water stress.
Figure 1 Simple Diagram to show...