TITLE: Zero Ground- Zero: Towards Innovative Vertical Extension
A hundred and twenty- five years ago, not a single nation was as urban as the world today. European countries are one of the earliest countries which experience the most rapid urban growth especially after the Industrial revolution in 19th century. This event is very influential in the history of town planning whereby it generates the development of agricultural, transportation, industrial technologies and other infrastructures. Heavy urbanization in the developing world is largely a post- World War II where in this period the pace of the urbanization in the developing countries has been far more rapid than before. While some country anticipates a declining population, more people are pushed to move to the city center because there are more job opportunities and better facilities. Hence, the city has to continuously grow in order to cater the growth of the demography in the urban area. The development of the city nowadays has become very fast and rapid. In the year 2001, the world population was 61 billion. However, according to United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), by the year 2025 the world’s population is expected to reach 78 billion people and 93 billion by the year 2050 due to a rapid increase in population in the developing countries. The global population growth particularly in the developing countries caused an urban expansion which creates many global conflicts in human society, such as environmental degradation, energy problems, land ownership issue and food crisis. “A city is a collective body of persons sufficient in themselves for all purpose of live”- Aristotle, Politics Johor Bahru, like many Asian cities, is facing increased social and environmental problems caused by rapid urbanization. The city population is increasing due to rural- urban migration, with the focus of the national and local economies shifting away from the agricultural sector. The enlargement of urban areas has resulted in an increase in the problems, needs and complexities relating to urban governance which later affect the urban structure of the town. The urbanization rate in Johor in 2005 was 66.5% (Ninth Malaysia Plan), which is the sixth highest in the country. Johor Bahru is the focal point within the state and it is fast expanding within the South Johor conurbation. Based on the Comprehensive Development Plan for South Johor Economic Region (SJER) 2006 – 2025, Johor governance have laid down a structural plan of the South Johor particularly the Johor Bahru City in order to face the massive urbanization. In the South Johor Urbanisation (Chapter 13), in the year 2025 the urbanization rate for SJER is expected to be 100%. The goal of this development plan is to creates a central growth in the focus area whereby it can controls the extent of urban areas and promotes development by increasing density within the city. The objectives of the Physical Implementation (Chapter 12) of the development plan stated that: a) To control the pace of development through availability of developable land and adequate infrastructure. The CDP advocates smart growth where development is allowed and encouraged only where there exists current or planned infrastructure investments. The future land use plan will promote development of locations in accordance with its planned spending strategy and will conversely discourage growth in areas lacking in infrastructure investments or in area with limited on-site capacity. b) Promote in- ﬁll and redevelopment in existing areas
Areas that are undeveloped or its use is currently uneconomical within existing urban centres and community areas need to be identiﬁed and form the main priority in promoting redevelopment. This will provide new additional spaces for residential, commercial and other developments that will capitalize upon existing resources. However,...