According to Hockenberry & Wilson (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2007, p. 139), there are four phases of grief and mourning. The first phase of grief is disbelief or denial. There is a feeling of dullness or having an “out of body” experience. At this time, one goes into the second phase. The second phase is overwhelming need to be with the deceased. These phases can last minutes or days. The third phase is a feeling of hopelessness and scattered thought processes. The person in this phase is usually despondent and may retreat to a void within oneself. Sometimes they feel in this phase that life has no meaning without the deceased at their side. The last phase is “reorganization, when the person begins to again find meaning in life, integrating the loss of the loved one into a renewed sense of normalcy” (Wacker-Guido, 2010, p. 139). There are four kinds of grief. The first type of grief is disenfranchised grief; this is the result of a loss for which they do not have a socially recognized right, role or capacity to grieve. These socially ambiguous losses cannot be openly mourned, or socially supported. Essentially, this is grief that is restricted by "grieving rules" ascribed by the culture and society. The bereaved may not publicly grieve because, somehow, some element or elements of the loss prevent a public recognition. Disenfranchised grief occurs in three primary ways. The first way is the relationship is not socially recognized. The relationship is not based on recognizable kin ties (the death of a friend), or socially sanctioned, (a partner in a gay or lesbian relationship), the relationship exists primarily in the past (ex-spouse). The second way is that the loss is not socially recognized or is hidden from others. Not socially recognized losses include perinatal losses. Hidden losses include abortion, the loss of pet, and losses that result from causes...
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