Green Marketing

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According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe.[1] Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term.[1] Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. Green, environmental and eco-marketing are part of the new marketing approaches which do not just refocus, adjust or enhance existing marketing thinking and practice, but seek to challenge those approaches and provide a substantially different perspective. In more detail green, environmental and eco-marketing belong to the group of approaches which seek to address the lack of fit between marketing as it is currently practiced and the ecological and social realities of the wider marketing environment.[2] The legal implications of marketing claims call for caution. Misleading or overstated claims can lead to regulatory or civil challenges. In the USA, the [Federal Trade Commission] provides some guidance on environmental marketing claims.[3] This Commission is expected to do an overall review of this guidance, and the legal standards it contains, in 2011.[4] Contents * 1 History * 2 Greenhouse gas reduction market * 3 Popularity and effectiveness * 3.1 Ongoing debate * 3.2 Confusion * 3.2.1 Greenwashing * 3.3 Benefit Corporations * 3.4 Statistics * 4 Adoptability * 4.1 LOHAS * 5 The Green Marketing Mix * 6 Eco Labels * 7 Life Cycle Assessment * 7.1 Example for LCA * 8 Green marketing cases * 8.1 Phillips's "Marathon" CFL lightbulb * 8.2 Car sharing services * 8.3 Electronics sector * 8.4 Products & Services * 8.5 Introduction of CNG in Delhi * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links| History

The term Green Marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[5] The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological Marketing" in 1975.[6] The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled "Ecological Marketing".[7] The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Reports started with the ice cream seller Ben & Jerry's where the financial report was supplemented by a greater view on the company's environmental impact. In 1987 a document prepared by the World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as meeting “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need”, this became known as the Brundtland Report and was another step towards widespread thinking on sustainability in everyday activity. Two tangible milestones for wave 1 of green marketing came in the form of published books, both of which were called Green Marketing. They were by Ken Peattie (1992) in the United Kingdom and by Jacquelyn Ottman (1993) in the United States of America.[8] According to Jacquelyn Ottman, (author of "The New Rules of Green Marketing: Strategies, Tools, and Inspiration for Sustainable Branding" (Greenleaf Publishing[9] and Berrett-Koehler Publishers, February 2011)) from an organizational standpoint, environmental considerations should be integrated into all aspects of marketing — new product development and communications and all points in between.[10] The holistic nature of green also suggests that besides suppliers and retailers new stakeholders be enlisted, including educators, members of the community, regulators, and NGOs. Environmental issues should be balanced with primary customer needs.[citation needed] The past decade has shown that harnessing...
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