Greek Engineering/Architecture

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table OF contents / List of Illustrations..…………………………………………….i Preface………………………………………………………………………………..ii The Tunnel of Eupalinos……………………………………………………………...1 Intro to Greek Architecture.…………………………………………………..............2 Tools and Materials Used...……………..…………………………………………….3 The Greek Orders……………..………………………………………………………4 Doric Order.……………...……………………………………………………………4 Ionic Order………………...…..………………………………………………………5 Corinthian Order………………………………………………………………………6 The Parthenon………………..…..……………………………………………………6 The Theater at Epidaurus.……………..………………………………………………7 The Temple of Athena Nike……………..……………………………………………8 Works cited..……………………………………………………………………….....iii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure 1: The Acropolis……………………………………………………………. CP
Figure 2,3,4: The Tunnel of Eupalinos ………………..…………………………….1,2

Figure 5: The Doric Order …………….……………………………………………..5

Figure 6: The Ionic Order ……………….…………………………………………...5

Figure 7: The Corinthian Order ……………………………………………………...6

Figure 8: The Parthenon ……………………………………………………………...7

Figure 9,10: The Theater at Epidaurus ..……………………………………………...4

Figure 11,12: The temple of Athena Nike…..………………………………………...4 < http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/vor?lookup=The+Temple+to+Athena+Nike&collection=>

PREFACE

Greek engineering is generally undervalued, sometimes to the point of being forgotten, or ignored in people's minds and writings. Our understanding of Greek society is incomplete if we know nothing of the methods by which the Greeks solved significant problems of the ordinary everyday variety, like finding and distributing drinking water, as well as the architecture of homes, temples, or other significant buildings. Many of the tools, methods, and architectural designs of today originate from ancient Greece. In this you will be able to appreciate Greek engineering through great Greek projects. The different styles of architecture and tools that were used such a long time ago are amazing and complicated, as well as the mathematics and calculations that were understood at that time. These are only a few examples of Greek Engineering, imagine how many more amazing feats they constructed. THE TUNNEL OF EUPALINOS

One extraordinary project of Greek engineering was the tunnel of Eupalinos. The tunnel was dug in the sixth century BC through the base of Mt Kastro, a 237-mile high mountain. It was dug to bring water from a spring, now called Agiades, on the north side of Kastro, into the city of Samos, on the south side of the mountain. The tunnel is 1,040 meters long and is approximately square at 1.8 meters high and wide. The water pipes are along the east wall I a channel sloping downward from the north to the south end. (7, 405) One interesting piece of information is that the tunnel was dug from both ends and met in the middle. Which brings an interesting question to mind. How did they find the same alignment so the two tunnels met head on? They knew the water was to flow by gravity, therefore the channel had to have a slope. Therefore the level of the conduit from the spring determined the level of the tunnel at the north end, and the level of the north end determined the level of the south end. (7, 407) There are three basic tools that were used for surveying and sighting, the groma, the chorobates, and the measuring pole or rod. The groma is a horizontal cross, mounted on the point of an offset pole, with plumb lines hanging from each of the four end points. It allows one to sight straight and perpendicular lines. The chorobates is a leveling tool. It's a bench preferably about 20 feet long with four identical straight legs attached perpendicularly at each corner. There is a vertical line drawn on a crosspiece that goes from the lower part of the leg to the bench. Directly above the vertical line there is a plumb line attached to the bench. There was also a five-foot long groove down the center of the table for water in case it was...
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