Instead of covering nearly every bit of space with ornament, as the Egyptians did, the Greeks selected only the best places for it, and thus gave it its proper effect. The decorations, especially the sculptures, were one of the chief features of a Greek temple. Besides their temples the Greeks built many theaters which may be studied from their ruins, but of their dwelling-houses almost nothing remains to us. The Greek style is noted for the repose, harmony, and proportion of its effect. These are terms we might use in speaking of a painting, but they relate to the composition of a building which is, in many respects, similar to the composition of a picture. In selecting his materials, and style, and site, and in arranging his masses of stones; in placing the lights and shades, and in producing an effect of symmetry and balance, the architect is doing much the same things that a painter does in composing his pictures. As to proportion, we may say, in a general way, that Doric temples were twice as long as they were wide, and once and a half as high as they were wide. The column was about six times its diameter in height, while the capital was one-half one diameter in height. CLIMATIC INFLUENCES:-
To make further comparison with the Egyptian, we notice that the Greek made a gable to his roof. This was to ward off the weather, a thing the Egyptian never had to think of. It shows us how climate will bring out new features in architecture, and that, what might be beautiful in Egypt, might seem ridiculous in Chicago. Only the suitable is beautiful. STYLE OF CONSTRUCTION:-
Using stone as the main constructional material led to trabeated and columned architecture, resembling that of the temple architecture in Ancient Egypt. Because many Greek buildings were made of wood, mud-brick, or clay, nothing remains of them except for a few ground-plans, and almost no written sources on early architecture or descriptions of these embryonic buildings exist. Common materials of Greek architecture were wood, limestone, and bronze. Those materials were used to construct five simple types of buildings: religious, civic, domestic, funerary, or recreational themes. GREEK ARCHITECTURE:-
There is a very early period of Greek architecture, the remains of which are mainly tombs and gateways. The ending of the war between the Greeks and the Persians delivered the country from the fear of invasion, and left it free to exercise the arts of peace. Under Pericles, the old temples were rebuilt with greater splendor. This was the Golden Age of Greek Art, both in architecture and in the sister art of sculpture. Pericles was the great figure, in Athenian public affairs for forty years; the "one man power" of his time. His fleets overcame the neighboring countries, and the wealth and prosperity of Greece was the greatest in the world. He was a believer in art, and under him flourished the great sculptor Phidias, who superintended the construction of Pericles' buildings. Sculptures made by Phidias, or under him, with which to adorn the temples, were the best the world has seen to this day. Sculpture was then as much a part of a fine building as the stone itself, and Pericles had such an idea of the importance and value of beautiful things that he kept the best artists busily at work. The result was that he made Athens the most beautiful city in the world.
The architecture that we know as Greek is the most perfect of all architecture, and the Parthenon, a temple at Athens, is its best example All Greek temples faced the east and in front of them there was an altar for the sacrifices.. The Greeks loved both freedom and beauty, and their temples were true and noble expressions of themselves and their aspirations. Their religion, though different from the religions of today, was a pure and lofty one, and entered largely into their architecture. Their temples were built to do...