Gm Pigs Xenotransplantation

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The possible role of genetically modified pigs in xenotransplantation.

Table of contents

Abstract. …......................................................................................................... Page. 4

2. Introduction. ..................................................................................................... 5-7

3. The possibilities for creating genetically modified pig donor organs.

3.1. The genetic modification of pigs for the purpose of xenotranplantation. ........ 8

4. Review of techniques used by researchers to genetically modify pigs for the purpose of xenotransplantation. ............................................................................................... 4.1. Sperm mediated gene transfer ............................................................ 9 4.2. Somatic cell nuclear transfer ............................................................ 10

5. Overcoming the immunological barriers to xenotransplantation. 5.1. Hyperacute rejection ….................................................................................. 11-12 5.2 Acute humoral xenograft rejection …............................................................ 13-14

6. Risk assessment – Possibility of porcine endogenous retrovirus crossing the pig to human species barrier. 6.1. The possible risk of xenotic infection............................................................. 15-16 6.2. Strategies to minimize xenotic infection. ....................................................... 17

7. Communicating the possible risk of transmissible xenotic disease to the public.

7.1. Communication, and the methods of communicating risk. ............................ 18

7.2. Informed consent. …....................................................................................... 19

7.3. Risk. .............................................................................................................. 19-20

7.4.Decision making involving risk ...................................................................... 21-22

8. Individual and societal acceptance of xenotransplantation as a means of treating end stage organ failure.

8.1. Surveys. ......................................................................................................... 23-24

9. Conclusion. ...................................................................................................... 26-27

References

Part.1.

1. Abstract

Xenotransplantation is a promising approach in bridging the gap between demand and supply of donor organs for transplantation into humans suffering from end stage organ failure. The possibility of using genetically modified (GM) pigs has been proposed as a means of providing an unlimited supply of hearts, kidneys and livers for transplantation into humans.

This work is aimed at evaluating the different genetic modification techniques used to create transgenic pigs for the purpose of xenotransplantation, and understanding how the technology may be used to mediate the mechanisms of xenograft rejection. Despite the best efforts of researchers the immunological barriers to xenotransplantation have not yet been fully overcome. The potential risk of infectious porcine recombinant viruses affecting society, and the methodology used to communicate the risk of xenotic infection are evaluated. A greater understanding of the remaining physiological barriers to xenotransplantation, and improvements in experimental and conventional immunosuppression may lead to clinical trials in the near future. The objectives for this...
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