Globalization and child labour
Globalization can be seen in many different forms. According to (Gunter & van der Hoeven, 2004) it often refers to the gradual integration of economies and societies driven by a lot of factors. New technologies and economic relationships can both be seen as major drivers of globalization (Gunter & van der Hoeven). Also, national and international policies of governments, international organizations and civil society contribute to the globalization process. (Preble, 2010) adds that widespread trade liberalization characterizes the current era of globalization. This period of globalization has had many positive effects like job creation, improved living standards and a wider variety of cheaper consumer goods and services (Preble). However, the key drivers of the current globalization era like free trade, private ownership, technological breakthroughs in transportation and communication and foreign direct investment, also cause dislocations and downsides. A more sustainable form of globalization has to be attained in order to prevent a relapse of globalization’s progress so far (Preble). In this literature review the characteristics and consequences of globalization will be discussed. The protestors’ as well as the proponents’ point of view on the challenges and profits which this phenomenon brings along will be highlighted and key policy recommendations to counter the challenges will be given. After providing general information on globalization, the paper will go further into one of the factors of globalization discussed by (Gunter & van der Hoeven, 2004) and (Preble, 2010), child labour. Child labour was listed by them as an effect of the globalization process. However, there are many factors that influence the incidence of child labour in a given economy. Child labour therefore cannot be seen as an explicit result of the globalization process, but there are strong links between both. Advantages and disadvantages of globalization
According to (Preble, 2010), The major challenges of globalization lie in the fields of job losses, income inequality, loss of national sovereignty and cultural identity and environmental degradation. The first point Preble makes is that, according to the detractors of globalization, job dislocations like the relocation of production plants to lower cost foreign locations and massive job losses in manufacturing are caused by trade liberalization and increasing foreign direct investments. The second point protestors have according to (Preble, 2010) is that globalization leads to income inequality, thus that the gap between the rich and the poor has become bigger. This can be countered by the fact that absolute economic welfare has increased for all groups. Also, globalization has a potential negative impact on national sovereignty as nations become increasingly intertwined economically, politically and socially [ (Preble, 2010) ]. Additionally, national cultures may converge into one global culture as a result of the world becoming one trade market and the spread of global firms. The last concern that anti-globalists have is about the exploitation and destruction of ecosystems and the natural environment that global capitalism brings along [ (Preble, 2010) ]. There are concerns about air pollution, exploitation of forestry and so on. On the other hand, (Gunter & van der Hoeven, 2004) focus more on the social dimension of globalization. They look at the impact of globalization on the life and work of people and societies. Here there are concerns about employment, working conditions and income, but also on culture and identity. Especially issues like wages and taxes, poverty, inequality, insecurity, child labour, gender and migration that are impacted by economic globalization are the reason why globalization has so many opponents [ (Gunter & van der Hoeven, 2004) ]. Where globalization has created unemployment, poverty and...
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