FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCEs AND COMMUNICATIONS
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND ADVERTISING
ACADEMIC YEAR: 2013/2014
By Emmanuel Emmanuel S
BA in Public Relation and Marketing.
Globalization according to various scholars is a very wide and ever changing phenomenon for example, According to Held and McGrew, et al (1999) it is defined as “a conceived process or set of processes which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relation and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power.” Another definition can include Giddens (1991, pg. 64) who defines it as “as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away.” So from our own perspective we can say that Globalization is the integration and connection of people, their values and goods among different countries. This can be more evident in such areas as; Economic aspects in terms of Foreign Direct Investments; Companies for example African Barrick Gold Plc, KFC, Vodacom, Airtel, Holiday Inn, Tigo and many others, Licensing; Pepsi, Coca Cola, International trade; Companies such as Apple, Microsoft, Samsung, LG, Nokia and so many others who products can be found in households worldwide and Economic Integrations; such as European Union, Transatlantic Free Trade Area. Political aspects, here we can place Intergovernmental organizations such as The United Nations and its various sub- branches such as The World Health Organization, International Labor Organization, International Criminal Court and so forth which operate freely in various nations and Perform various activities which maybe be considered in the realm of many Governments. Social Aspects, Simple examples such as foreign dressing styles, learning foreign languages at school, listening to foreign music and watching foreign movies, sport games e.g. American, Indian, British, Nigerian, Kenyan, Communicating with people from various parts of the world using the internet or mobile phones and the Olympic Games and FIFA World Cup Championships.
These have all been made significantly possible due to the presence of globalization in today’s world as observed no longer are we closed up in barriers; just us being able to watch a football game that’s being played in Britain, having multinational companies or having bodies such as The UN providing troops to war torn nations shows that we are now living in a world free from boundaries hence as many definitions point out “Interconnectedness” of various aspects. Thus in a nutshell we can conclude that globalization is the world becoming one.
According to Kieh (2008) the major driving force for Globalization was the Industrial Revolution; in which this required the availability of raw material and an even increased need to find new markets thus brought about global trade, capitalism, the subsequent colonialization of major areas such as India, The Americas and Africa. And brought about the scientific developments that brought about the current technologies that are fundamental to making the world into a village such as Technological and Trade Advancement, Free Market Economy and New Mass Media. But the Industrial revolution of the 18th-19th Century is not the only factor that drives globalization as there are other forces as well, such as;
Emergence of Multinational corporations, this includes very large companies for example Barclays, Samsung, Apple, B.P, just to mention a few, These companies are so large and powerful that they are able to operate in various countries thus becoming international hence linking various countries to one another in terms of spreading technical know-how and also goods and services thus becoming a factor behind...