At the beginning of the 21st century, with the globalised world, there is an increase in policies which better protect human rights, especially women and children. However, exploitation and abuse are still daily happening. According to The National Child Labor Survey, 3.3 million children between the ages of 5-14 in Pakistan have to work in farms or factories many hours per day which is hazardous and low-paid. However, this issue is still ignored. (Ahmad et al. 2011). Therefore, whereas most believe that globalisation will help improve both the economy and living standards, the others are aware of its negative effects on human rights which have become a controversial issue targeted by the media. Although globalisation plays a significant role in economic growth, its effects can cause a variety of serious concerns about individual rights. It will be argued in this essay that not only because of its drawbacks including poor working conditions and low wages, but also because of child labour issues, the ethical issues related to globalization should be considered. This essay will first indicate benefits of globalization in reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and workplace standards. Secondly, the arguments against globalization due to serious effects on individual rights will be demonstrated. Finally, it will discuss some solutions and evaluate the feasibility of the implementation of these solutions.
Globalization is defined in many different ways. However, all of them imply that globalization is a process which has been bringing the world closer through the exchange of technology, economy, polity and culture across national frontiers that lead to greater interdependence between countries with free transfer of goods, services, capital, labor and knowledge (Awuah & Amal, 2011). In other words, globalization may be described as an elimination of barriers of time and distance to increase the connectivity among countries of the world (Healey, 2008).
Child labour can be defined as any kind of harmful work that a young child has to do with low pay levels due to psychological, social, and materialistic pressure upon them including responsibility for their family’s survival and themselves (Ahmad, et al., 2011). This concentrates mainly in the developing countries where there are numerous low-income families with parents who without educational qualifications or disability may not earn enough money to feed themselves and their children. As a result of this, these children have to go to work to sustain life.
Ethics can be defined as a system of moral principles that affects people’s decisions as to what is good for individuals and society, and concerned with responsibility and human rights (Healey, 1995). A morally right action can produce a good outcome and contrasts with a wrong action which may lead to a serious consequence. Thereby, in order to evaluate the rightness and wrongness of actions, it is possibly based on moral theories.
The benefits of globalization on economy and society
It is claimed that globalization has positive influences on the economy and society. Firstly, it can lead to improvement in the standard of living and diminishing poverty rates, compared with globalization when international trade had not taken place, exchange trading between countries was limited due to tariff barriers leading to hampering the transfer of commodities across borders. Therefore, it was possible only to be consumed domestic goods instead of diverse imported goods. However, as a result of globalization, advancement of global economy and expansion foreign direct investment lead to local economic development with the diversification of commodities and the improvement in efficiency and productivity (Healey A, 2008). McNichol, (cited in Healey...