4: Have Gender National Action Plans failed to deliver? Critically review TWO countries .Your discussion should consider governance issues as well as suggest strategies that can improve gender representation / participation in politics?
Gender Equality is the basic principle of democracy and an important parameter for sustainable development. Since the establishment of United Nations Gender Equality is recognized as a human right. In the past quarter century ,there has been great development in gender equality at national and global levels, particularly since the fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in the year 1995.Gender equality and women empowerment have been considered as a critical condition for overall development of a country and taken into consideration in different national planning systems. ‘The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) agreed by 189 countries, made during the UN Millennium Summit on 8 September 2000,New York, stand for solidarity and determination of the world leaders to rid the world of poverty and improve the lot of humanity.’( Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation,Government of India) The Declaration commits Governments - ‘ To promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as effective ways to combat poverty, hunger and disease and to stimulate development that is truly sustainable. It also addresses the .” It also addresses the equal rights and opportunities of women and men” and pledges “to combat all forms of violence against women and to implement the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nation Development fund for women(UNIFEM) have so far played an important role in supporting and assisiting the Government and other stakeholders in many countries to develop and implement programmes that supports legislative and policy changes focusing on critical issues related to gender equality ,promote women’s emanicipation and human rights that ultimately contribute to the progress of achieving Millennium Development Goals, particularly in a country. Gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative.(world bank report 2012)
2. GENDER NATIONAL ACTION PLAN
‘Equality between women and men is a matter of human rights and a condition for social justice and is also a necessary and fundamental prerequisite for equality, development and peace.’ (un women) In 1994, fourth World Conference on women was held in Beijing where 189 countries participated and promised gender equality and women empowerment power to the women of the world. Over 40,000 men and women from around the globe participated to formulate a Global Action Plan – The Beijing Platform for Action. This is the basic document for measuring the progress of gender justice and women empowerment globally.” “National Action Plans serve as a guiding national policy document that is able to capture the diverse set of government bodies and stakeholders tasked with security, foreign policy, development and gender equality. A NAP can facilitate non-duplicative interdepartmental coordination and accelerate gender mainstreaming and Security Council Resolution 1325 implementation across government.” Gender National Action plan was identified as a priority at the Beijing Platform for Action for women and codified in United Nations Millennium Development Goals at UN Millennium Summit on 8 September 2000,New York. The Gender...