Linkers Linkers are signals that show the connection between one idea and the next. They are important in reading because they help understanding a text. The following chart shows some of the linkers you may need to use while expressing opinions and ideas. TASK 1. Study the linkers and complete the blanks in the table. FUNCTION To list ideas in order of importance To list actions in time order LINKERS first (of all) / then / to begin with / next /afterwards / finally after / before
________________________________ and / moreover / also / in addition / furthermore ________________________________ because / as / since To express contrast but / however
________________________________ for example / to illustrate / for instance To express unexpected result ________________________________ To signal paraphrasing ________________________________ To add a summary although / even though so / as a result / consequently that is / in other words in conclusion / to conclude in summary / to sum up / to summarize
TASK 2. Study the table which shows the correct punctuation patterns of the linkers in Task 1 and complete the blanks accordingly.
*These linkers may follow a semicolon (;) instead of a full stop. First (of all) ________________ To begin with Next Afterwards Finally ________________ , sentence. sentence . Also In addition Furthermore ________________ For example ________________ For instance ________________ Consequently That is In other words ________________ In summary To conclude To sum up To summarize
sentence , but _____ so sentence
After ________________ Although/Even though sentence ________________
after Sentence before ________________ because/as/since
Two connectors that frequently appear in reading texts are on the contrary and in fact. On the contrary is used to disagree with a negative statement, so it serves to strengthen the meaning given earlier. Please note that the grammar of first sentence is negative and the subjects are the same. Study the examples below: Sally is not an ugly girl. On the contrary, she is quite attractive. Tom did not let his low grades upset him. On the contrary, he began to study harder. Some types of bacteria do not harm the bodily functions. On the contrary, they help certain organs to function better. In fact is used to introduce more detailed information about what has been said earlier. Today is very warm. In fact, it is 35 degrees Celsius. He completed the work fairly quickly. In fact, he did most of it in just one day. The Internet is very popular in Australia. In fact, Australia has the highest number of Internet users compared to other countries. Divorce is getting more common. In fact, the number of divorces is expected to double in a couple of years. 2
TASK 3. Rewrite each sentence, choosing the correct linker from the parentheses and adding the correct punctuation. 1. Millions of people continue to eat at such places as MacDonald’s and Burger King. Studies show that eating fast food is dangerous for health. (that is, however) __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The economic crisis could seriously affect the prices of certain products. It could lead to a shortage of these goods. (in addition, for instance) __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The value of the dollar has gone down. The financial markets are worried about the situation. (consequently, moreover) __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 4....