Running head: GARDNER AND ZIGLER
Gardner and Zigler Steven J. Karaiskos Northcentral University 5101-8 Foundations for Graduate Study in Psychology Alycia Harris March 02, 2013
GARDNER AND ZIGLER Gardner and Zigler
Howard Gardner and Edward Zigler are two influential psychologists who have altered the profession of psychology as well as provided new direction in such areas as early childhood development, education and even politics. Each, through their personal and professional paths, helped to establish a new foundation on which psychology stands today. Howard Gardner did not believe that psychology was going to be his profession. He considered becoming a lawyer, a doctor or a teacher (Gardner, 2003, p.79). His interest in the Arts, his passion to write and his own curiosity was combined with great support for his research. He also had opportunities with noted behavioral neurologist and philosopher Nelson Goodman (Gardner, 2003, p. 80-83). This background led to a long career in psychology. Gardner helped to define the role of the right hemisphere of the brain and its importance in language development, artistic talent and creative styles (Gardner, 2003, p. 82). Gardner also proposed the idea of multiple intelligences which theorizes there is a large range of cognitive abilities (Gardner, 2003, p. 83). He eventually took this work and his ideas and applied them within the education system of the United States. Edward Zigler was more of a scientist throughout his life. One of his first major accomplishments began with child development. First working with pre-school students and then individuals with mental retardation, Zigler showed that retarded individuals learned a task the same as non-retarded (Zigler, 2003, p. 274-275). He theorized that failure contributed to negative socialization and this can dominate the self-image of all children (Zigler, 2003, p. 275). These efforts led him to bureaucratic work specifically the planning and...
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